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Table 6 Chiropractic treatment provided and proportion of use (34 studies)

From: The chiropractic profession: a scoping review of utilization rates, reasons for seeking care, patient profiles, and care provided

Chiropractic treatment provided
Chiropractic treatment Percentage of treatment provided (median, IQR) Number of reporting studies
Spinal manipulationa 79.3% (55.4-91.3) 22
Soft-tissue therapyb 35.1% (16.5-52.0) 18
Formal patient education 31.3% (22.6-65.6) 15
Nutritional supplements 30.9% (10.8-63.0) 11
Exercise instruction/prescription 26.0% (9.0-68.1) 14
Cold/ice 26.0% (9.0-74.0) 7
Heat 21.8% (12.0-49.0) 5
Mobilization/Manual tractionc 17.2% (12.4-32.0) 8
Orthopedic supports 13.0% (3.0-23.0) 2
Electrical stimulation 12.7% (7.9-31.0) 9
Ultrasound 12.5% (6.7-27.1) 7
Acupuncture 2.4% (6.0-1.8) 4
Chiropractic system used
Chiropractic system Proportion of use (median, IQR) Number of reporting studies
Diversified 65.5% (57.1-83.0) 13
Nimmo-Tonus 28.8% (15.6-40.0) 4
Activator 23.0% (14.0-38.0) 12
Gonstead 14.0% (8.0-21.0) 12
Cox 10.5% (4.0-27.0) 5
HIO 10.0% (1.9-16.6) 3
Applied kinesiology 10.0% (3.0-19.0) 6
Thompson 7.0% (2.8-14.0) 6
Cranial/SOT 6.6% (5.8-14.0) 8
  1. IQR interquartile range, HIO hole in one technique, SOT sacro-occipital technique
  2. aSpinal manipulation included adjustment with mechanical assistance such as hand-held instruments (Activator), toggle boards, and drop pieces
  3. bSoft-tissue therapy included the use of massage techniques, trigger-point release, ischemic compression, and other manual therapies typically used with the intent to treat connective tissue, muscles, and other soft tissue structures
  4. cMobilization/Manual traction included any manual therapy typically directed at the joint complex with varying speeds and amplitudes with the intent to restore optimal motion, function, and to reduce pain