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Table 1 Characteristics of included Studies on causes of LBP

From: Failure to define low back pain as a disease or an episode renders research on causality unsuitable: results of a systematic review

First author, Year, Country Study design Anticipated finding(s) based on the study aim(s) Recall period for LBP Definitiona According to authors or obvious from text:
1st time episode, Episode, or Prevalence b
Definition of preceding non-episodec Risk factor data collected prior to the onset of LBP variable
Aggarwal 2013
India [28]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, associated risk factors 1 year Prevalence None No
Alperovitch 2010
Israel [29]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, associated risk factors 1 year Prevalence None No
Auvinen 2010
Finland [30]
Longitudinal Risk factors 6 month Episode No LBP previous 6 month at 16 & 18 Yes for the 2nd survey
Capkin 2015
Turkey [31]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, 1 year Prevalence NA No
Cho 2012
South Korea [32]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, Point, 6 month Prevalence NA Not clear
Coenen 2013
the Netherlands [33]
Prospective cohort Associated risk factor 1 year Prevalence NA Not clear
Erick 2014
Botswana [34]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Ernat 2012
North America [35]
Retrospective, Database analysis Incidence, risk factors NA Initial visit for lumbago NA No
Gaowgzeh 2015
Saudi Arabia [36]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Undefined Prevalence None No
Jia 2016
China [37]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Kanchanomai 2015
Thailand [38]
Prospective Annual incidence, risk factors 3 month Incidence None Not clear
Katsavouni 2014
Greece [39]
Cross-sectional Risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Knox 2014
North America [40]
Retrospective Database analysis Incidence, risk factors NA First diagnosis of LBP NA No
Lin 2014
Taiwan [41]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Lin 2012
Taiwan [42]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, point Prevalence NA No
Mikkonen 2016
Finland [43]
Prospective cohort Risk factors 6 month Episode No LBP past 6 month at 16 & 18 Yes for the 2nd survey
Mitchell 2010
Australia [44]
Prospective Risk factors predicting new-onset LBP Life-time, 1 year Episode No significant LBP at baseline Yes
Mohseni-bandpei 2011
Iran [45]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factor Point, 1 month, 6 month, year, lifetime Prevalence NA No
Murtezani 2011
Kosovo [46]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Ng 2014
Australia [47]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, point Prevalence NA No
Nissen 2014
Denmark [48]
Retrospective Associated Risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Noda 2015
Sri Lanka [49]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 4 weeks Prevalence NA No
Ramond-Roquin 2015 France [50] Prospective cohort Risk factors 1 week Prevalence, episode NA Yes for the 2nd survey
Shemory 2016
North America [51]
Retrospective Database analysis Risk factors NA Incidence NA No
Sikiru 2010
Nigeria [52]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Steffens 2015
Australia [53]
Case-crossover Risk factors NA Episode Free of pain in the past month No/purposely retrospective
Sterud 2013
Norway [54]
Prospective Risk factors 4 weeks Prevalence NA No
Triki 2015
Tunisia [55]
Retrospective Prevalence No LBP before current injury First LBP injury NA No
van Hilst 2015
the Netherlands [56]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, associated risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Vandergrift 2012
North America [57]
Prospective Risk factors 1 year Episode Pain-free at baseline Yes for the follow-up survey
Vargas-Prada 2013
Spain [58]
Prospective Incidence, risk factors 1 year Episode Free of pain in the past month Yes for the follow-up survey
Vilar Furtado 2014
Brazil [59]
Cross-sectional Risk factors 3 month Prevalence NA No
Yue 2012
China [60]
Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
  1. aThe period in which an episode of LBP was investigated for its risk factors
  2. b1st time episode: when the very first episode of LBP was investigated, Episode: when any pain-free period preceding the recurrent episode under scrutiny could be identified, and Prevalence: when explicitly stated by authors or based on their objectives and method a mixture of all types of LBP was investigated
  3. cAn application of a pain-free period preceding the episode under scrutiny