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Table 1 Characteristics of included Studies on causes of LBP

From: Failure to define low back pain as a disease or an episode renders research on causality unsuitable: results of a systematic review

First author, Year, Country Study design Anticipated finding(s) based on the study aim(s) Recall period for LBP Definitiona According to authors or obvious from text: 1st time episode, Episode, or Prevalence b Definition of preceding non-episodec Risk factor data collected prior to the onset of LBP variable
Aggarwal 2013 India [28] Cross-sectional Prevalence, associated risk factors 1 year Prevalence None No
Alperovitch 2010 Israel [29] Cross-sectional Prevalence, associated risk factors 1 year Prevalence None No
Auvinen 2010 Finland [30] Longitudinal Risk factors 6 month Episode No LBP previous 6 month at 16 & 18 Yes for the 2nd survey
Capkin 2015 Turkey [31] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, 1 year Prevalence NA No
Cho 2012 South Korea [32] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, Point, 6 month Prevalence NA Not clear
Coenen 2013 the Netherlands [33] Prospective cohort Associated risk factor 1 year Prevalence NA Not clear
Erick 2014 Botswana [34] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Ernat 2012 North America [35] Retrospective, Database analysis Incidence, risk factors NA Initial visit for lumbago NA No
Gaowgzeh 2015 Saudi Arabia [36] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Undefined Prevalence None No
Jia 2016 China [37] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Kanchanomai 2015 Thailand [38] Prospective Annual incidence, risk factors 3 month Incidence None Not clear
Katsavouni 2014 Greece [39] Cross-sectional Risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Knox 2014 North America [40] Retrospective Database analysis Incidence, risk factors NA First diagnosis of LBP NA No
Lin 2014 Taiwan [41] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Lin 2012 Taiwan [42] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, point Prevalence NA No
Mikkonen 2016 Finland [43] Prospective cohort Risk factors 6 month Episode No LBP past 6 month at 16 & 18 Yes for the 2nd survey
Mitchell 2010 Australia [44] Prospective Risk factors predicting new-onset LBP Life-time, 1 year Episode No significant LBP at baseline Yes
Mohseni-bandpei 2011 Iran [45] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factor Point, 1 month, 6 month, year, lifetime Prevalence NA No
Murtezani 2011 Kosovo [46] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Ng 2014 Australia [47] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors Lifetime, point Prevalence NA No
Nissen 2014 Denmark [48] Retrospective Associated Risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Noda 2015 Sri Lanka [49] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 4 weeks Prevalence NA No
Ramond-Roquin 2015 France [50] Prospective cohort Risk factors 1 week Prevalence, episode NA Yes for the 2nd survey
Shemory 2016 North America [51] Retrospective Database analysis Risk factors NA Incidence NA No
Sikiru 2010 Nigeria [52] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Steffens 2015 Australia [53] Case-crossover Risk factors NA Episode Free of pain in the past month No/purposely retrospective
Sterud 2013 Norway [54] Prospective Risk factors 4 weeks Prevalence NA No
Triki 2015 Tunisia [55] Retrospective Prevalence No LBP before current injury First LBP injury NA No
van Hilst 2015 the Netherlands [56] Cross-sectional Prevalence, associated risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
Vandergrift 2012 North America [57] Prospective Risk factors 1 year Episode Pain-free at baseline Yes for the follow-up survey
Vargas-Prada 2013 Spain [58] Prospective Incidence, risk factors 1 year Episode Free of pain in the past month Yes for the follow-up survey
Vilar Furtado 2014 Brazil [59] Cross-sectional Risk factors 3 month Prevalence NA No
Yue 2012 China [60] Cross-sectional Prevalence, risk factors 1 year Prevalence NA No
  1. aThe period in which an episode of LBP was investigated for its risk factors
  2. b1st time episode: when the very first episode of LBP was investigated, Episode: when any pain-free period preceding the recurrent episode under scrutiny could be identified, and Prevalence: when explicitly stated by authors or based on their objectives and method a mixture of all types of LBP was investigated
  3. cAn application of a pain-free period preceding the episode under scrutiny