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Table 7 Significant difference of outcomes between-groups in 8 studies that compared a spinal manipulation to a sham procedure, including information on the sham and areas tested included in a systematic review on spinal manipulation and pressure pain threshold

From: The regional effect of spinal manipulation on the pressure pain threshold in asymptomatic subjects: a systematic literature review

Regions First author, year [ref] Psychologically acceptable sham Physiologically acceptable sham In conclusion, was the sham completely credible? (Yes/No) General quality classification of articles Significant difference of outcomes between groups (Yes/No)
Cervical Ruiz-Saez, 2007 [16] Acceptable Not acceptable No High Yes
Srbely, 2013 [17] Acceptable Acceptable Yes High Yes
Fernandez de las Penas, 2008 [18] Acceptable Not acceptable No Medium Yes
Fernandez de la Penas, 2007 [19] Acceptable Not acceptable No Medium Yes
Hamilton, 2007 [20] Possibly acceptable Not acceptable No Medium No
Lumbar Yu, 2012 [15] Acceptable Acceptable Yes High Yes
Thompson, 2009 [13] Not acceptable Not acceptable No Medium No
Thoracic Fryer, 2004 [21] Not acceptable Not acceptable No Medium No