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Table 1 Characteristics of the study elderly population aged 60 years and older with and without falls

From: The role of quadriceps muscle strength in the development of falls in the elderly people, a cross-sectional study

Variables Subjects with falls(n = 178) Mean ± SD Subjects without falls(n = 850) Mean ± SD P values
Age, year 69.8 ± 7.7 68 ± 6.9 0.001
Gender
 Women 96 (21.1) 359 (78.9) 0.043
 Men 82 (14.3) 491 (85.7)
Vitamin D ng/ml 38.1 ± 37 34 ± 31 0.17
Total PAa score, mean ± SD 113 ± 68 115.4 ± 63 0.67
Alcohol consumption
 No 176 (98.88) 820(96.5) 0.09
 yes 2 (1.2) 30(3.5)  
Visual impairment, no(%)
 Yes 79 (44.3) 308(36.2) 0.17
 No 99 (55.7) 542(63.8)
Osteoporosis b
 Yes 83 (46.6) 276 (32.4) 0.001
 No 95 (53.4) 574(61.6)
Vitamin D deficiency, no(%)
 Yes 66 (37) 311 (63) 0.93
 No 112 (62) 539(38)
Diabetes
 Yes 59 (33.1) 252 (29.6) 0.50
 No 119 (66.8) 598 (70.3)
Hypertension, no(%)
 Yes 112 (62.) 518 (61) 0.80
 No 66 (37) 332 (63)
Obesity c, no(%)
 Yes 62 (34.8) 270 (31.7) 0.57
 No 106 (65.2) 580 (68.2)
QMS d, kg
  > 30 23 (9.30) 225 (90.7)
 15–30 97 (18.2) 430 (81.8) 0.001
  < 15 58 (23.5) 189 (76.5) 0.001
  1. aPhysical activity was assessed by administration of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire [42]
  2. bDefined as BMD T-score ≤ − 2.5
  3. cDefined as body mass index > 30 kg m2
  4. dQuadriceps muscle strength