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Table 1 Characteristics of randomized trial of lumbar traction

From: Assessment of variability in traction interventions for patients with low back pain: a systematic review

Research parameters Studies
Isner-Horobeti 2016 [17] Thackeray 2016 [16] Diab 2013 [15] Kim 2013 [13] Prasad 2012 [12] Simmerman 2011 [14] Schimmel 2009 [28] Unlu 2008 [29] Fritz 2007 [11]  
Symptom duration Acute and Subacute Acute, subacute and chronic Chronic Chronic Acute, subacute and chronic Acute, subacute and chronic Chronic Acute Acute  
Sciatica status + + + + + +  
Traction type Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Inversion Inversion Aquatic Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical  
Traction rhythm Continuous Continuous Continuous Intermittent Intermittent Continuous Intermittent Intermittent Continuous  
Traction force 50% of body weight 40–60% of body weight Maximum tolerable force Unknown Unknown 2.3 kg ankle weight 50% of body weight 35–50% of body weight 40 to 60% of body weight  
Patient position Supine Prone Supine Supine Unknown Vertical Supine Supine Prone  
Traction frequency 10 sessions, 5 per week, for 2 weeks 12 session for 6 weeks 3 min 1st session, and increased 1 min each subsequent session for a maximum of 20 min. 3 times per week for 10 weeks Three 3-min inversions, 4 times a week for 8 weeks Six 2-min inversions, 3 times a week for 4 weeks 1 session for 15 min 25–30 min per session, for 20 sessions for 6 weeks 15 min per session for 5 days a week for 3 weeks 12 min for 12 session for 6 weeks  
Traction combined with other interventions No Yes: directional preference exercises Yes: mixed physical therapy interventions No Yes: mixed physical therapy interventions No No No Yes: directional preference exercises  
Comments Patient had specific LBP (disc)     Patient had specific LBP (disc)    Patient had specific LBP (disc)   
Research parameters Studies
Harte 2007 [30] Gudavalli 2006 [31] Ozturk 2006 [32] Borman 2003 [33] Sherri 2001 [20] Guvenol 2000 [34] Werners 1999 [35] Beurskens 1997 [21] Van der Heijden 1995 [36] Letchuman 1993 [37]
Symptom duration Acute and subacute Chronic Acute, subacute and chronic Chronic Chronic Subacute and chronic Acute Subacute and chronic Acute, subacute and chronic Acute, subacute chronic
Sciatica status + +/− +/− Unknown + + +/− +/− +/−
Traction type Mechanical Manual Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Inversion Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical
Traction rhythm Continuous Intermittent Continuous Unknown Intermittent Unknown Intermittent Continuous Continuous Continuous and intermittent
Traction force 5–60 kg Unknown 25–50% body weight Up to 50% of the body weight 50–95 lbs Unknown 10–20 kg 35–50% of body weight 30 to 50% of body weight maximum 50% of body weight
Patient position Supine Prone Unknown Supine Prone Supine Supine Unknown Unknown Prone
Traction frequency 10–20 min for 2–3 times a week for 4–6 weeks 2–4 sessions per week for 4 weeks, 9–18 min of traction 15 min per sessions, for 5 sessions per week, for 15 sessions 20 min for 5 sessions per week for 2 weeks 30 min per session for 5 sessions per week for 4 weeks, then once per week for 4 weeks. 5 min on 1st day, 8 min on 2nd day, 10 min on 3rd day and onwards through 7 days (10 days total) 6 sessions for 2–3 weeks 20 min per session, for 12 times over a period of 5 weeks unknown session duration for 10–12 sessions for 4 consecutive weeks 6 min
Traction combined with other interventions Yes: mixed physical therapy interventions No Yes: modalities Yes: mixed physical therapy interventions No No No No No No
Comments    Patient had specific LBP (disc)    Patient had specific LBP (disc)   Published data only   
Research parameters Studies
Sweetman 1993 [38] Tesio 1993 [39] Konrad 1992 [40] Ljunggren 1992 [41] Mathews 1988 [42] Reust 1988 [43] Pal 1986 [44] Ljunggren 1984 [45] Weber 1983a [19]  
Symptom duration unknown subacute and chronic Subacute Acute, subacute and chronic Acute and subacute Unknown Acute, subacute and chronic Subacute Unknown  
Sciatica status unknown +/− +/− + + +/− + + +  
Traction type Mechanical Autotraction Aquatic Manual Autotraction Mechanical Mechanical Autotraction Manual  
Traction rhythm Continuous Intermittent Unknown Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Intermittent Intermittent  
Traction force 1st week 33% body weight, 2nd week 50% body Unknown Participant’s weight, gravity plus 3 kg weight on both sides. 300 N 45 kg 5-kg on day 1, 10 kg on day 2, 15 kg on day 3, increasing 5 kg each day up to a maximum of 50 kg 5.5–8.2 kg Between 33 and 100% of participant’s body weight 40–70 kilopond  
Patient position Unkonwn Unknown Standing Unknown Supine or prone Unknown Supine Unknown Unknown  
Traction frequency 10 min per session, for 3 sessions per week, for unknown number of weeks 3–6 s with 1-min rest for 30–60 min/session. 2–3 times a week for 3–10 sessions. 15 min, 3 times per week, for 4 weeks 10 min per day for 5–7 days 30 min per session for 5 days per week for a maximum of 3 weeks 10 min per day, for 12 sessions, for 12 days Unknown Every treatment lasted about 1 h 10–20 s followed by rest for 20 min one time per day  
Traction combined with other interventions No No No No No No No No No  
Comments     Patients had specific LBP (disc).     Patients had specific LBP (disc). Patients had specific LBP (disc).  
Research parameters Studies
Weber 1983b [19] Walker 1982 [46] Coxhead 1981 [47] Larson 1980 [48] Bihaug 1978 [49] Mathews 1975 [50] Lind 1974 [51] Weber 1973 [52] Lidstrom 1970 [53]  
Symptom duration Unknown Acute, subacute and chronic Acute, subacute and chronic Subacute Subacute and chronic subacute and chronic Acute, subacute and chronic unknown Subacute and chronic  
Sciatica status + + + + + + +/− + +  
Traction type Manual Mechanical Mechanical Autotraction Autotraction Mechanical Autotraction Mechanical Mechanical  
Traction rhythm continuous Unknown Intermittent Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Intermittent Intermittent  
Traction force 30 kilopond 40–70 kiloponds unknown Unknown 70 Kilopond 36.3 kg Unknown 33% of body weight Unknown  
Patient position Unknown Unknown Unknown Prone, supine, sidelying Prone Altered at the therapist’s discretion Unknown Unknown Supine  
Traction frequency 10–20 s followed by rest for 20 min one time per day 20 min daily for 4–8 days. 4 weeks up to 3 treatments within 1 week for less than 1 h 4–12 sessions per week 30 min per day, for 5 days per week, for 3 weeks. 1 h for 1–3 weeks 20 min per session for 5–7 days Unknown  
Traction combined with other interventions No Unknown No No Unknown No Yes: bed rest and postural advice. Unknown Unknown  
Comments Patients had specific LBP (disc).   Sciatica was defined as pain as low as the buttock crease