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Table 4 Results per outcome variable

From: Physical risk factors for adolescent neck and mid back pain: a systematic review

Outcome variable Changes in adolescents with NSP No changes in adolescents with NSP
Sitting posture Cervicothoracic angle Slightly decreased in adolescents with NSP, if not adjusted for gender [28]
Decreased in adolescents with prolonged NSP, if not adjusted for gender [27]
 
Craniocervical angle   Straker et al., 2008 [28]
Straker et al., 2009 [27]
Head flexion   Straker et al., 2008 [28]
Straker et al., 2009 [27]
Lumbar angle More lordotic/smaller lumbar angle in adolescents with prolonged NSP after controlling for gender [27] Straker et al., 2008 [28]
Neck flexion   Straker et al., 2008 [28]
Straker et al., 2009 [27]
Pelvic tilt Increased anterior pelvic tilt in adolescents with prolonged NSP after controlling for gender [27] Straker et al., 2008 [28]
Trunk angle Decreased in adolescents with prolonged NSP, if not adjusted for gender [27]
Slightly decreased in adolescents with NSP, if not adjusted for gender [28]
 
Standing posture Body lean angle Sway back posture = large trunk lean angle and body lean angle in boys with neck pain [24] Dolphens et al., 2012 [23]
Dolphens et al., 2014 [25]
Craniovertebral angle Anteroposition of the head = smaller craniovertebral angle in boys with neck pain; more lifetime doctor visits in girls with anteroposition of the head [23]  
Pelvic displacement angle   Dolphens et al., 2012 [23]
Dolphens et al., 2013 [24]
Dolphens et al., 2014 [25]
Trunk lean angle Increased trunk lean angle = increased posterior trunk tilt in boys with neck pain [23]
Sway back posture = large trunk lean angle and body lean angle in boys with neck pain [24]
Dolphens et al., 2014 [25]
Trunk Functional stability (Matthiass test)   Wirth et al., 2013 [29]
Asymmetry (forward bending test)   Wirth et al., 2013 [29]
Spinal mobility (fingertip-floor distance)   Wirth et al., 2013 [29]
Endurance (sustained back extension test, abdominal curls) Boys: lower odds for NSP when back muscle endurance reduced; girls: U-shape between NSP and back muscle endurance, higher odds for NSP when abdominal muscle endurance increased [26]  
Upper limb Upper limb power (seated basketball throw) Boys: higher odds for NSP when upper limb power increased; girls: lower odds for NSP when upper limb power increased [26]  
Grip strength   Perry et al., 2008 [26]
Shoulder flexibility (shoulder stretch) Girls: lower odds for NSP when shoulder flexibility decreased [26]  
Other Coordination (single leg stance)   Wirth et al., 2013 [29]
Motor competence (neurodevelopmental index)   Perry et al., 2008 [26]
Lower limb power (standing long jump) Boys and girls: higher odds for NSP when lower limb power increased [26]  
  1. NSP neck shoulder pain