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Table 3 Responses for the Neurophysiology of Pain (NPQ) questionnaire items (matched data only)

From: Changes in pain knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of osteopathy students after completing a clinically focused pain education module

  Pre-intervention Post-intervention
NPQ item Correct responses Undecided responses Correct responses Undecided responses
1. Receptors on nerves work by opening ion channels in the wall of the nerve. 44 (80%) 10 (18.2%) 48 (88.9%) 3 (5.5%)
2. When part of your body is injured, special pain receptors convey the pain message to your brain. 1 (1.8%) 0 (0%) 3 (5.5%) 0 (0%)
3. Pain only occurs when you are injured or at risk of being injured. 37 (67.3%) 5 (9.1%) 40 (72.7%) 1 (1.8%)
4. Special nerves in your spinal cord convey “danger” messages to your brain. 42 (76.4%) 9 (16.4%) 46 (83.6%) 2 (3.6%)
5. Pain is not possible when there are no nerve messages coming from the painful body part. 26 (47.3%) 8 (14.5%) 36 (65.5%) 3 (5.5%)
6. Pain occurs whenever you are injured. 35 (63.6%) 7 (12.7%) 41 (74.5%) 3 (5.5%)
7. The brain sends messages down your spinal cord that can change the message going up your spinal cord.^ 29 (52.7%) 14 (25.5%) 44 (80.0%) 5 (9.1%)
8. The brain decides when you will experience pain.* 34 (61.8%) 9 (16.4%) 48 (87.3%) 3 (5.5%)
9. Nerves adapt by increasing their resting level of excitement. 42 (76.4%) 9 (16.4%) 49 (89.1%) 4 (7.3%)
10. Chronic pain means that an injury hasn’t healed properly. 28 (50.9%) 7 (12.7%) 38 (69.1%) 4 (7.3%)
11. The body tells the brain when it is in pain.^ 11 (20.0%) 7 (12.7%) 31 (56.4%) 4 (7.3%)
12. Nerves can adapt by producing more receptors.^ 31 (56.4%) 14 (25.5%) 47 (85.5%) 14 (25.5%)
13. Worse injuries always result in worse pain. 39 (70.9%) 7 (12.7%) 46 (83.6%) 2 (3.6%)
14. Nerves adapt by making ion channels stay open longer.^ 21 (38.2%) 31 (56.4%) 41 (74.5%) 8 (14.5%)
15. Descending neurons are always inhibitory.^ 16 (29.1%) 38 (69.1%) 44 (80.0%) 8 (14.5%)
16. When you injure yourself, the environment that you are in will not affect the amount of pain you experience, as long as the injury is exactly the same. 44 (80.0%) 6 (10.9%) 51 (92.7%) 2 (3.6%)
17. It is possible to have pain and not know about it. 15 (27.3%) 5 (9.1%) 16 (29.1%) 4 (7.3%)
18. When you are injured, special receptors convey the danger message to your spinal cord. 40 (72.7%) 8 (14.5%) 44 (80.0%) 3 (5.5%)
19. All other things being equal, an identical finger injury will probably hurt the left little finger more than the right little finger in a violinist but not a piano player. 11 (20.0%) 26 (47.3%) 7 (20.0%) 15 (27.3%)
Total score (median & range) 10 (4–16)   14 (7–19)  
  1. ^p < 0.001, *p < 0.01