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Table 4 Descriptive statistics for the HC-PAIRS at time 1 and time 2

From: Changes in pain knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of osteopathy students after completing a clinically focused pain education module

Item Pre-Intervention Post- Intervention
Median Range Median Range
1. Chronic back pain patients can still be expected to fulfil work and family responsibilities despite pain.a 3 1–6 3 1-7
2. An increase in pain is an indicator that a chronic back pain patient should stop what he is doing until the pain decreases. 6 2–7 5 1–7
3. Chronic back pain patients cannot go about normal life activities when they are in pain. 5 2–7 5 1–7
4. If their pain would go away, chronic back pain patients would be every bit as active as they used to be. 4 2–6 4 1–7
5. Chronic back pain patients should have the same benefits as the disabled because of their chronic pain problem. 4 1–6 4 1–6
6. Chronic back pain patients owe it to themselves and those around them to perform their usual activities even when their pain is bad.a 5 3–7 5 2-7
7. Most people expect too much of chronic back pain patients, given their pain. 5 2–7 4 1–7
8. Chronic back pain patients have to be careful not to do anything that might make their pain worse. 6 2–7 5 1–7
9. As long as they are in pain, chronic back pain patients will never be able to live as well as they did. 5 1–7 5 1–7
10. When their pain gets worse, chronic back pain patients find it very hard to concentrate on anything. 6 3–7 5 3–7
11. Chronic back pain patients have to accept that they are disabled persons due to their chronic pain. 3 1–6 2 1–5
12. There is no way that chronic back pain patients can return to doing the things that they used to do unless they first find a cure for their pain. 3 1–6 3 1–6
13. Chronic back pain patients find themselves frequently thinking about their pain and what it has done to their life. 5 2–7 5 2–7
14. Even though their pain is always there, chronic back pain patients often don’t notice it at all when they are keeping themselves busy.a 4 2–6 4 1-6
15. All of chronic back pain patients problems would be solved if their pain would go away 3 1–6 3 1–7
Total score 46 32–55 65 39–86
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