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Table 1 Course of pain and bio-psycho-social impairment over 12 months after start of chiropractic treatment

From: An observational study on trajectories and outcomes of chronic low back pain patients referred from a spine surgery division for chiropractic treatment

  Baseline (SD) 1 week (SD) 1 month (SD) 3 months (SD) 6 months (SD) 12 months (SD)
Present pain (NRS) 5.43 (2.37) 5.14 (2.46) 4.42 (2.81) 4.52 (2.99) 4.09 (2.89) 4.05 (2.87)
BQ total score 39.80 (15.16) 34.91 (14.96) 28.62 (17.96) 27.92 (18.34) 27.96 (18.28) 29.00 (17.90)
BQ 1: average pain over last week 6.30 (2.06) 5.70 (2.07) 4.83 (2.51) 4.80 (2.93) 4.51 (2.75) 4.48 (2.70)
BQ 2: interference with daily activities 5.71 (2.58) 4.97 (2.53) 3.82 (2.90) 3.85 (2.91) 4.07 (3.00) 4.21 (3.02)
BQ 3: interference with recreational, social, and family activities 5.31 (3.24) 4.64 (3.03) 4.48 (3.16) 4.18 (3.19) 3.97 (3.22) 4.14 (3.20)
BQ 4: anxiety 5.60 (3.08) 4.81 (2.61) 3.80 (2.99) 4.02 (2.78) 4.32 (3.07) 4.60 (2.90)
BQ 5: depression 5.08 (3.59) 4.10 (3.08) 3.60 (3.18) 3.34 (3.11) 3.33 (2.96) 3.90 (3.02)
BQ 6: fear avoidance beliefs 6.08 (2.88) 4.99 (3.10) 4.31 (3.16) 4.27 (3.11) 4.35 (3.27) 4.28 (3.32)
BQ 7: locus of control 5.75 (2.70) 5.16 (2.96) 4.10 (2.99) 3.39 (2.68) 3.55 (2.76) 3.93 (2.87)
  1. BL Baseline, BQ Bournemouth Questionnaire, NRS Numeric rating scale