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Table 3 Descriptions of studies included in systematic review

From: Manipulation-induced hypoalgesia in musculoskeletal pain populations: a systematic critical review and meta-analysis

1st author, year, country Design No. of participants Age (range) Male/ Female Musculoskeletal pain type Source of participants SMT Control or comparison/s Outcome measure/s PPT area Time of follow-up
Bautista-Aguirre 2017, Spain [27] 3 arm
RCT
88 (28/30/30) 32 (NR) 24/64 Chronic non-specific NP Primary care 1. C7 HVLA SMT
2. T3 HVLA SMT
(NR if 2nd allowed)
Control (manual contact to head for 3 min) PPT @ median nerve at wrist & elbow, ulnar nerve at elbow, radial nerve at upper arm 1. Regional
2. Remote
Immediate
Bialosky 2009, USA [22] 3 arm RCT 36 (12/12/12) 32 (NR) 10/26 Non-specific LBP General population & primary care Bilateral SIJ HVLA SMT (2 regardless of cavitation) 1. Stationary bicycle (5 min)
2. Lumbar extension exercises
TS @ palmar hand & plantar foot
Aδ “first” pain @ volar forearm & calf
NA Immediate
Bialosky 2014, USA [23] 4 arm RCT 110 (28/27/27/28) 32 (NR) 33/77 Non-specific LBP General population & primary care (not direct referral) Bilateral SIJ HVLA SMT (2 regardless of cavitation) 1. Sham SMT
2. Sham SMT + positive expectation
3. Control (5 min quiet sitting)
Mechanical pain sensitivity @ PSIS & 1st web-space of foot
Suprathreshold heat response @ plantar foot
Aftersensations @ plantar foot
NA Immediate
Casanova-Méndez 2014, Spain [28] 2 arm RCT 60 (30/30) 38 (NR) 17/43 Chronic non-specific NP Primary care 1. T4 supine HVLA SMT
2. T4 toggle-recoil HVLA SMT
(2nd if no cavitation)
Nil PPT @ C4 SP, T4 SP, & upper trapezius Local & remote Immediate
20 min
Coronado 2015, USA [33] 3 arm RCT 78 (26/27/25) 39 (NR) 42/36 General shoulder pain General population & primary care Mid-cervical HVLA SMT (NR if pre-specified, 2nd if no cavitation) 1. Shoulder manipulation
2. Shoulder exercise program
PPT @ acromion & tibialis anterior
HPT @ volar forearm
TS @ volar forearm
Regional & remote Immediate
1–2 wks
Côté 1994, Canada [25] 2 arm RCT 30 (16/14) 31 (22–50) 16/14 Chronic non-specific LBP Primary care L5-S1 or SIJ HVLA SMT (therapist-chosen level, NR if 2nd allowed) Lumbar mobilisation PPT @ L5 paraspinals, SIJ, & upper gluteal muscles Local & regional Immediate
15 min
30 min
De Oliveira 2013, Brazil [32] 2 arm RCT 148 (74/74) 46 (NR) 39/109 Chronic non-specific LBP General population & primary care 1. “Global” T1-T5 HVLA SMT (pre-specified)
2. Lumbar HVLA SMT (therapist-chosen level)
(NR if 2nd allowed)
Nil PPT @ L3 & L5 paraspinals, & tibialis anterior 1. Remote
2. Local & regional
Immediate
Fernández-Carnero 2008, Spain [34] 2 arm cross-over RCT 10 42 (30–49) 5/5 Lateral epicondylalgia General population C5–6 HVLA SMT (2nd if no cavitation) Sham SMT PPT @ lateral epicondyle
HPT @ lateral epicondyle
CPT @ lateral epicondyle
Regional 5 min
Kardouni 2015, USA [35] 2 arm RCT 45 (24/21) 31 (18–59) 22/23 Shoulder pain General population & primary care Thoracic HVLA SMT (NR if pre-specified, 2 thrusts in each of lower, mid, and upper) Sham SMT PPT @ deltoid & lower trapezius Regional & remote Immediate
Lopez-Lopez 2015, Spain [29] 3 arm RCT 48 (15/16/17) 35/36/37 by group (NR) 6/42 Chronic non-specific NP Primary care Cervical HVLA SMT (therapist-chosen level, 2nd if no cavitation) 1. P-A grade III mobilisation
2. Sustained apophyseal natural glide mobilisation
PPT @ C2 SP Local 5 min
Maduro de Camargo 2011, Brazil [30] 2 arm RCT 37 (17/20) 31/28 by group (19–45) 21/16 Non-specific NP General population C5–6 HVLA SMT (2nd if no cavitation) Control (2 min quiet sitting) PPT @ upper trapezius, deltoid, & C5 SP Local & regional 5 min
Mansilla-Ferragut 2009, Spain [26] 2 arm RCT 37 (18/19) 35 (21–50) 0/37 Chronic non-specific NP General population Bilateral C0–1 HVLA SMT (2nd if no cavitation) Sham SMT PPT @ temple Regional 5 min
Martínez-Segura 2012, Spain [21] 3 arm RCT 90 (29/28/33) 37 (NR) 44/46 Chronic non-specific NP Primary care 1. Right mid-cervical HVLA SMT
2. Left mid-cervical HVLA SMT
3. Broad T1-T4 HVLA SMT
(therapist-chosen level, 2nd if no cavitation)
Nil PPT @ C5–6 facet, lateral epicondyle, & tibialis anterior 1 & 2. Local, regional & remote
3. Remote
10 min
Packer 2014, Brazil [24] 2 arm RCT 32 (16/16) 23/26 by group (21–29) 0/32 Chronic temporo-mandibular disorder & non-specific NP NR T1 HVLA SMT (2nd if no cavitation) Sham SMT PPT @ masseter, temporalis, & temporomandibular joint Remote Immediate
48–72 h
Salom-Moreno 2014, Spain [31] 2 arm RCT 52 (27/25) 33 (NR) 22/30 Chronic non-specific NP Primary care T3-T6 HVLA SMT (2nd if no cavitation) T3-T6 grade III-IV mobilisation PPT @ C5–6 facet, 2nd metacarpal, & tibialis anterior Remote 10 min
  1. Abbreviations: CPT Cold pain threshold, HPT Heat pain threshold, HVLA High-velocity low-amplitude, LBP Low back pain, NA Not applicable, NP Neck pain, NR Not reported, P-A Posterior to anterior, PPT Pressure pain threshold, PSIS Posterior sacroiliac spine, RCT Randomised controlled trial, SIJ Sacroiliac joint, SMT Spinal manipulative therapy, SP Spinous process, TS Temporal summation