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Table 1 Descriptive analysis of demographic variables for whole study sample and across STarT Back Tool risk subgroups for patients presenting for chiropractic care (n = 550)

From: Measuring biopsychosocial risk for back pain disability in chiropractic patients using the STarT back screening tool: a cross-sectional survey

Variables n for whole sample Whole Sample n for select variable across STarT Back subgroup STarT Back Risk Subgroup
Low Medium High
Age-mean (SD) 529 44.8 (15.9)   42.4 (15.4) 50.9 (17.1) 45.1 (13.6)
Sex-n (%) 536   486    
 Male   230 (42.9)   166 (43.2) 33 (41.3) 11 (50.0)
 Female   305 (56.9)   217 (56.5) 47 (58.8) 11 (50
 Prefer not to answer   0 (0.0)   0 (0.0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Prefer to self-describe   1 (0.2)   1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Race-n (%) 524   475    
 Native American or Alaskan Native   2 (0.4)   1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)
 Asian   6 (1.1)   3 (0.8) 2 (2.5) 0 (0.0)
 Black or African American   27 (5.2)   13 (3.5) 6 (7.5) 4 (18.2)
 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander   1 (0.2)   1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 White   462 (88.2)   337 (90.3) 67 (83.8) 16 (72.7)
  > 1 race   26 (5.0)   18 (4.8) 4 (5.0) 2 (9.1)
Ethnicity-n (%) 498   453    
 Hispanic/Latino   33 (6.6)   23 (6.4) 6 (8.0) 2 (10.5)
 Non-Hispanic/non-Latino   465 (93.4)   336 (93.6) 69 (92.0) 17 (89.5)
Employment status-n (%) 511   468    
 Full-time   251 (49.1)   201 (54.0) 23 (31.1) 11 (50.0)
 Part-time   69 (13.5)   54 (14.5) 9 (12.2) 1 (4.5)
 Full-time student   64 (11.6)   53 (14.2) 5 (6.8) 1 (4.5)
 Unemployed   127 (24.9)   64 (17.2) 37 (50) 9 (40.9)
Occupation-n (%) 514   467    
 Educator   40 (7.8)   36 (9.7) 2 (2.7) 0 (0.0)
 Health care professional   61 (11.9)   48 (12.9) 6 (8.1) 1 (0.0)
 Active duty military   36 (7.0)   29 (7.8) 4 (5.4) 0 (0.0)
 Law enforcement   2 (0.4)   0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) 1 (4.5)
 Computer technology   16 (3.1)   12 (3.2) 1 (1.4) 0 (0.0)
 Transportation industry   9 (1.8)   8 (2.2) 1 (1.4) 0 (0.0)
 Agriculture   10 (1.9)   5 (1.3) 2 (2.7) 0 (0.0)
 Other   340 (66.1)   233 (62.8) 57 (77.0) 20 (90.9)
Marital status-n (%) 534   484    
 Never been married   147 (27.5)   106 (27.7) 19 (24.1) 6 (27.3)
 Married/living with significant other   294 (55.1)   221 (57.7) 45 (57.0) 6 (27.3)
 Divorced   75 (14.0)   48 (12.5) 11 (13.9) 8 (36.4)
 Widow   18 (3.4)   8 (2.1) 4 (5.1) 2 (9.1)
Primary symptom area-n (%) 549   495    
 Low back pain   136 (24.8)   89 (22.8) 30 (37.0) 8 (34.8)
 Neck pain   80 (14.6)   66 (16.9) 4 (4.9) 2 (8.7)
 Mid-back pain   52 (9.5)   42 (10.7) 4 (4.9) 2 (8.7)
 Other   132 (24.0)   109 (27.9) 10 (12.3) 0 (0.0)
  > 1 region   149 (27.1)   85 (21.7) 33 (40.7) 11 (47.8)
Current episode duration-n (%) 548   494    
 n/a   46 (8.4)   38 (9.7) 2 (2.5) 0 (0.0)
  < 2 weeks   60 (10.9)   46 (11.8) 7 (8.8) 4 (17.4)
 2–4 weeks   43 (7.8)   32 (8.2) 3 (3.8) 2 (8.7)
 5–12 weeks   59 (10.8)   40 (10.2) 10 (12.5) 2 (8.7)
 13 weeks – 1 year   71 (13.0)   52 (13.3) 12 (15.0) 2 (8.7)
  > 1 year   269 (49.1)   183 (46.8) 46 (57.5) 13 (56.5)
Chiropractic care duration-n (%) 547   493    
n/a or have not received chiropractic care for condition   52 (9.4)   39 (7.2) 4 (4.9) 1 (4.3)
  < 2 weeks   41 (7.5)   29 (7.5) 5 (6.2) 2 (8.7)
 2–4 weeks   49 (9.0)   34 (8.7) 9 (11.1) 1 (4.3)
 5 to 12 weeks   67 (12.2)   50 (12.9) 10 (12.3) 2 (8.7)
 13 weeks – 1 year   78 (14.3)   58 (14.9) 9 (11.1) 4 (17.4)
  > 1 year   260 (47.3)   179 (46.0) 44 (54.3) 13 (56.5)
Average pain in past 2 weeks-mean (SD) 547 3.6 (2.2)   3.0 (1.8) 5.5 (1.8) 7.3 (1.5)
Most severe pain in past 2 weeks-mean (SD) 547 5.1 (2.6)   4.4 (2.4) 7.2 (1.8) 8.7 (1.3)
Current pain-mean (SD) 530 2.9 (2.1)   2.3 (1.8) 4.6 (1.8) 5.9 (2.6)