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Table 1 Overview of the included studies for quality assessment

From: The natural course of low back pain from childhood to young adulthood – a systematic review

Author and year Study design and setting Age of cohort at baseline Purpose of study Number of follow-ups Time between follow-ups Sample size Methods for data collection Outcome measures of LBP Identified terminology for patterns of LBP
Aartun, 2014 School-based prospective cohort study 11–13 years Course of LBP 1 2 years Baseline: 1291
Follow-up: 1064 (82%)
Electronic questionnaire 1) Point prevalence
2) 1-week prevalence
3) Lifetime prevalence
1) Never LBP
2) Development of LBP
3) Changes in frequency of LBP
Burton, 1996 School-based prospective cohort study 11 years Natural history of LBP 4 1 year Baseline: 216
Follow-up (T5): 147 (68%)
Questionnaire; interviews first 2 years, then self-administered 1) Lifetime prevalence 1) Single, discrete spell of LBP
2) Recurrent LBP
Coenen, 2017 Follow-up in a birth cohort 17 years Trajectories of LBP 2 3 and 2 years Baseline: 1050
Follow-up (T2): 1033 (98%) (not same responders T1–3)
Self-administered questionnaire 1) 1 month prevalence 1) Consistenly low probability of LBP
2) Increase in prevalence of LBP
3) Decrease in the prevalence of LBP
4) Consistently high prevalence of LBP
Grimmer, 2006 School-based prospective cohort study 13 years Tracking of LBP 4 Yearly samples Baseline: 434
Follow-up (T5): 174 (40%)
Self-administered questionnaire 1) 1-week prevalence 1) Recent LBP
2) Variability of LBP
1) Repeated reporting
2) Regular LBP
3) Consistency of occurrence of LBP
Kjaer, 2011 School-based prospective cohort study 9 years Tracking of LBP 3 4 years Baseline: 479
Follow-up: 443 (92%) (not same responders T1–4)
Questionnaire by interviews 1) Point prevalence
2) 1-week prevalence
3) 1 month prevalence
1) No LBP
2) Still LBP
3) Changes in reports of LBP
Mikkelsson, 1997 School-based prospective cohort study 9 years Persistence of LBP 1 1 year Baseline: 1756
Follow-up:1628 (92%)
Self-administered questionnaire 1) 3 months prevalence 1) Seldom or never LBP
2) Persistence of LBP
Sjolie, 2004 School-based prospective cohort study 14 years Persistence and change in LBP 1 3 years Baseline: 88Follow-up:
85 (97%)
Self-administered questionnaire 1) 1-year prevalence 1) No LBP
2) Still LBP
3) Persistent, but changeable LBP
Szpalski, 2002 School-based prospective cohort study 9 years Prediction of LBP 1 2 years Baseline: 287
Follow-up: 287 (100%)
Self-administered questionnaire 1) Lifetime prevalence 1) No LBP
2) Identical LBP
3) Ongoing LBP