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Table 2 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics (mean [SD] unless otherwise noted)

From: Spinal manipulative therapy and exercise for older adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

Parameter Treatment group
  SMT + HEP SEP + HEP HEP
n 81 80 80
Age 72.5 (5.6) 73.6 (5.3) 74.7 (5.6)
Female, n (%) 46 (56.8) 38 (47.5) 40 (50.0)
Race, n (%)
 White 78 (96.3) 77 (96.3) 77 (96.3)
 Asian or Pacific Islander 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.3)
 Black 3 (3.7) 2 (2.5) 1 (1.3)
 Other 0 (0) 1 (1.3) 0 (0)
 Not reported 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.3)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Education
 Less than high school 3 (3.7) 1 (1.3) 4 (5.0)
 High school degree 26 (32.1) 29 (36.3) 21 (26.3)
 Some college 23 (28.4) 26 (32.5) 25 (31.3)
 College degree 17 (21.0) 14 (17.5) 12 (15.0)
 Professional degree 12 (14.8) 10 (12.5) 18 (22.5)
Working, n (%) 11 (13.6) 18 (22.5) 16 (20.0)
BMI 29.0 (6.4) 28.3 (5.1) 28.7 (4.3)
Duration [years] 13.7 (15.7) 12.1 (15.1) 12.9 (15.8)
 -Median [25th to 75th percentiles] 10.0 [1.6 to 20.0] 5.0 [1.8 to 19.5] 5.0 [2.5 to 20.0]
Chronic (current episode ≥12 weeks), n (%) 78 (96.3) 77 (96.3) 78 (97.5)
Radiation to lower extremity, n (%) 27 (33.3) 32 (40.0) 34 (42.5)
Awake at night due to back pain, n (%) 32 (39.5) 21 (26.3) 18 (22.8)
Traumatic onset, n (%) 27 (33.3) 15 (18.8) 15 (18.8)
Prior treatment in past 3 months, n (%) 24 (29.6) 24 (30.0) 20 (25.0)
History of depression or anxiety, n (%) 16 (19.8) 12 (15.0) 12 (15.0)
Neck pain, n (%) 58 (71.6) 60 (75.0) 58 (72.5)
Tobacco use, n (%) 3 (3.7) 10 (12.5) 4 (5.0)
Low back pain severity [0–10] 5.07 (1.60) 5.31 (1.45) 5.14 (1.43)
Low back disability (Roland Morris) [0–100] 45.5 (20.9) 42.9 (17.9) 45.3 (16.5)
Medication use (0–4) 1.63 (1.50) 1.68 (1.47) 2.09 (1.67)
Expectation of improvement at the end of treatment (1–9) 1.52 (0.50) 1.64 (0.56) 1.99 (0.72)
  1. BMI body mass index, HEP home exercise program, SEP supervised exercise program, SMT spinal manipulative therapy