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Table 3 Primary and Secondary Patient-rated Outcomes

From: Spinal manipulative therapy and exercise for older adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

  SMT + HEP SEP + HEP HEP SMT + HEP minus HEP SEP + HEP minus HEP SMT + HEP minus SEP + HEP
Low back pain severity [0–10]
 Week 0 Mean (SD) 5.07 (1.60) 5.31 (1.45) 5.14 (1.43)    
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 3.90 (3.48 to 4.33) 4.51 (4.08 to 4.94) 4.19(3.76 to 4.62) −0.28 (− 0.89 to 0.32) 0.33(− 0.28 to 0.94) − 0.61(−1.22 to − 0.01)
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 2.85 (2.43 to 3.28) 3.25(2.82 to 3.68) 3.64(3.20 to 4.07) − 0.78(−1.39 to − 0.17) − 0.39 (− 1.00 to 0.22) −0.39 (− 1.00 to 0.21)
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     −0.48 (− 1.00 to 0.03) 0.04 (− 0.48 to 0.56) − 0.53 (− 1.04 to − 0.01)
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 3.64 (3.21 to 4.07) 3.58 (3.15 to 4.01) 3.52 (3.08 to 3.95) 0.12 (− 0.49 to 0.73) 0.06 (− 0.56 to 0.67) 0.06 (− 0.55 to 0.67)
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 3.81 (3.39 to 4.24) 3.94 (3.51 to 4.37) 3.68 (3.25 to 4.12) 0.13 (− 0.48 to 0.74) 0.26 (− 0.35 to 0.87) − 0.13 (− 0.74 to 0.48)
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     −0.13 (− 0.59 to 0.34) 0.04 (− 0.43 to 0.52) − 0.17 (− 0.64 to 0.30)
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for pain severity (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value = 0.76
Low back disability (Roland Morris) [0–100]
 Week 0 Mean (SD) 45.5 (20.9) 42.9 (17.9) 45.3 (16.5)    
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 36.2 (32.4 to 40.0) 34.2 (30.4 to 38.0) 34.8 (31.0 to 38.6) 1.38 (−3.99 to 6.75) −0.60 (−6.01 to 4.81) 1.98 (− 3.39 to 7.36)
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 29.9 (26.1 to 33.7) 25.3 (21.5 to 29.1) 30.0 (26.1 to 33.9) −0.13 (−5.56 to 5.29) −4.70 (−10.15 to 0.74) 4.57 (− 0.83 to 9.97)
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     0.78 (−3.99 to 5.54) −2.24 (−7.04 to 2.55) 3.02 (−1.75 to 7.78)
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 30.0 (26.2 to 33.9) 31.1 (27.3 to 35.0) 34.8 (31.0 to 38.7) −4.81 (−10.25 to 0.63) −3.70 (−9.16 to 1.76) − 1.11 (−6.55 to 4.33)
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 34.3 (30.5 to 38.1) 33.4 (29.5 to 37.2) 32.9 (29.0 to 36.8) 1.41 (−4.04 to 6.85) 0.45 (−5.00 to 5.90) 0.96 (−4.45 to 6.36)
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     −1.42 (−5.88 to 3.04) −2.47 (−6.95 to 2.01) 1.05 (−3.40 to 5.50)
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for disability (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value = 0.56
 Improvement [1–9]
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 3.85 (3.55 to 4.16) 3.84 (3.52 to 4.15) 3.91 (3.6 to 4.22) − 0.06 (− 0.5 to 0.38) −0.08 (− 0.52 to 0.36) 0.02 (− 0.42 to 0.45)
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 3.11 (2.80 to 3.42) 3.00 (2.69 to 3.31) 3.34 (3.02 to 3.65) − 0.23 (− 0.67 to 0.21) −0.34 (− 0.78 to 0.1) 0.11 (− 0.33 to 0.55)
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     −0.13 (− 0.51 to 0.26) −0.18 (− 0.57 to 0.21) 0.05 (− 0.33 to 0.44)
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 3.43 (3.12 to 3.75) 3.38 (3.07 to 3.7) 3.54 (3.23 to 3.86) − 0.11 (− 0.55 to 0.33) −0.16 (− 0.6 to 0.28) 0.05 (− 0.39 to 0.49)
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 3.72 (3.41 to 4.03) 3.54 (3.23 to 3.86) 3.64 (3.33 to 3.96) 0.07 (− 0.37 to 0.51) −0.1 (− 0.54 to 0.34) 0.17 (− 0.27 to 0.61)
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     −0.08 (− 0.45 to 0.28) −0.17 (− 0.54 to 0.19) 0.09 (− 0.27 to 0.45)
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for improvement (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value = 0.65
Satisfaction [1–7]
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 1.93 (1.72 to 2.14) 1.77 (1.56 to 1.98) 2.35 (2.14 to 2.57) −0.43 (− 0.73 to − 0.13) −0.58 (− 0.88 to − 0.28) 0.15 (− 0.15 to 0.45)
P-value     0.005 < 0.001 0.31
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 1.86 (1.65 to 2.08) 1.68 (1.47 to 1.9) 2.38 (2.17 to 2.6) −0.52 (− 0.82 to − 0.22) −0.7 (− 1 to − 0.4) 0.18 (− 0.12 to 0.48)
P-value     0.001 < 0.001 0.24
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     −0.46 (− 0.74 to − 0.19) −0.63 (− 0.9 to − 0.36) 0.16 (− 0.11 to 0.44)
P-value     < 0.001 < 0.001 0.23
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 2.07 (1.86 to 2.29) 1.82 (1.61 to 2.04) 2.46 (2.25 to 2.68) −0.39 (− 0.69 to − 0.09) −0.64 (− 0.94 to − 0.34) 0.25 (− 0.05 to 0.55)
 P-value     0.012 < 0.001 0.10
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 2.17 (1.96 to 2.38) 1.87 (1.66 to 2.09) 2.54 (2.32 to 2.75) −0.37 (− 0.67 to − 0.06) −0.66 (− 0.97 to − 0.36) 0.3 (− 0.003 to 0.6)
 P-value     0.018 < 0.001 0.052
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     −0.42 (− 0.67 to − 0.16) −0.65 (− 0.91 to − 0.39) 0.24 (− 0.02 to 0.49)
 P-value     0.002 < 0.001 0.07
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for satisfaction (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value < 0.001
Medication use [0–4]
 Week 0 Mean (SD) 1.63 (1.50) 1.68 (1.47) 2.09 (1.67)    
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 1.53 (1.25 to 1.81) 1.52 (1.24 to 1.81) 1.60 (1.31 to 1.88) −0.07 (− 0.47 to 0.34) −0.07 (− 0.48 to 0.33) 0.01 (− 0.39 to 0.41)
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 1.51 (1.23 to 1.8) 1.28 (1 to 1.57) 1.61 (1.32 to 1.9) −0.09 (− 0.5 to 0.32) −0.32 (− 0.73 to 0.08) 0.23 (− 0.17 to 0.63)
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     −0.08 (− 0.42 to 0.27) −0.17 (− 0.52 to 0.17) 0.10 (− 0.24 to 0.44)
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 1.61 (1.33 to 1.9) 1.50 (1.21 to 1.78) 1.51 (1.22 to 1.8) 0.1 (−0.3 to 0.51) −0.01 (− 0.42 to 0.4) 0.12 (− 0.29 to 0.52)
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 1.77 (1.49 to 2.06) 1.45 (1.16 to 1.73) 1.47 (1.18 to 1.76) 0.3 (−0.1 to 0.71) −0.02 (− 0.43 to 0.39) 0.33 (− 0.08 to 0.73)
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     0.09 (−0.22 to 0.40) −0.09 (− 0.40 to 0.22) 0.18 (− 0.13 to 0.49)
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for medication use (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value = 0.51
SF-36 PCS [0–100]
 Week 0 Mean (SD) 37.9 (8.7) 39.3 (7.0) 38.4 (7.3)    
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 40.8 (39.4 to 42.1) 40.8 (39.4 to 42.1) 40.2 (38.9 to 41.5) 0.55 (−1.33 to 2.43) 0.55 (− 1.35 to 2.44) 0.00 (− 1.88 to 1.88)
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 43.0 (41.7 to 44.4) 43.8 (42.5 to 45.2) 42.5 (41.1 to 43.8) 0.58 (− 1.32 to 2.48) 1.39 (−0.52 to 3.3) − 0.81 (− 2.7 to 1.08)
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     0.56 (−1.09 to 2.21) 0.88 (−0.77 to 2.54) −0.32 (− 1.98 to 1.33)
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 41.7 (40.3 to 43) 43.0 (41.7 to 44.4) 42.0 (40.6 to 43.4) −0.34 (− 2.24 to 1.57) 1.02 (− 0.89 to 2.93) −1.36 (− 3.26 to 0.55)
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 40.6 (39.2 to 41.9) 42.3 (40.9 to 43.6) 42.1 (40.7 to 43.4) −1.52 (− 3.42 to 0.39) 0.19 (− 1.72 to 2.1) −1.70 (− 3.6 to 0.19)
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     −0.34 (−1.87 to 1.2) 0.83 (− 0.71 to 2.37) − 1.16 (− 2.7 to 0.37)
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for SF-36 PCS (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value = 0.31
SF-36 MCS [0–100]
 Week 0 Mean (SD) 53.9 (8.4) 55.5 (8.2) 55.9 (7.4)    
 Week 4 Mean (95% CI) 56.7 (55.5 to 58) 55.9 (54.6 to 57.2) 56.3 (55 to 57.6) 0.47 (−1.36 to 2.3) −0.38 (−2.22 to 1.46) 0.85 (−0.97 to 2.68)
 Week 12 Mean (95% CI) 56.6 (55.3 to 57.9) 56.1 (54.8 to 57.4) 56.5 (55.2 to 57.8) 0.07 (−1.78 to 1.92) −0.41 (−2.26 to 1.44) 0.48 (− 1.35 to 2.32)
 Short term Mean (95% CI)     0.31 (−1.24 to 1.86) −0.39 (− 1.95 to 1.16) 0.71 (− 0.84 to 2.25)
 Week 26 Mean (95% CI) 56.4 (55 to 57.7) 55.1 (53.8 to 56.4) 54.7 (53.4 to 56.1) 1.61 (−0.26 to 3.47) 0.37 (−1.49 to 2.23) 1.24 (−0.61 to 3.1)
 Week 52 Mean (95% CI) 54.2 (52.9 to 55.5) 55.9 (54.6 to 57.2) 55 (53.7 to 56.4) −0.86 (−2.72 to 1) 0.84 (−1.01 to 2.7) −1.71 (−3.55 to 0.14)
 Long term Mean (95% CI)     0.49 (−1.24 to 1.86) 0.23 (−1.18 to 1.63) 0.26 (− 1.14 to 1.66)
Omnibus test for differences in long term longitudinal profile for SF-36 MCS (weeks 4 through 52) between groups P-value = 0.79
  1. CI confidence interval, HEP home exercise program, SEP supervised exercise program, SMT spinal manipulative therapy