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Table 5 Mean change in objective measures at week 12 (95% CI)

From: Spinal manipulative therapy and exercise for older adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

  Treatment groups Group differences
  SMT + HEP SEP + HEP HEP SMT + HEP minus HEP SEP + HEP minus HEP SMT + HEP minus SEP + HEP
Isometric strength (lbs)
 Extension 9.1 (5.0 to 12.2) 4.4 (0.3 to 8.4) 6.8 (2.7 to 10.9) 2.3 (−3.5 to 8.1) − 2.4 (− 8.1 to 3.4) 4.7 (− 1.1 to 10.4)
 Flexion 1.4 (−1.4 to 4.1) 1.0 (−1.8 to 3.8) 2.0 (− 0.8 to 4.8) − 0.6 (− 4.5 to 3.3) −1.0 (− 4.9 to 3.0) 0.4 (− 3.6 to 4.3)
Static endurance (sec)
 Extension 18.1 (10.0 to 26.3) 25.3 (17.2 to 33.4) 21.7 (13.5 to 29.9) −3.6 (− 15.2 to 8.0) 3.6 (− 7.9 to 15.2) − 7.2 (− 18.7 to 4.3)
 Flexion 9.1 (− 2.0 to 20.2) 25.2 (14.2 to 36.3) 15.8 (4.7 to 27.0) −6.7 (− 22.4 to 9.0) 9.4 (− 6.3 to 25.1) −16.1 (− 31.8 to − 0.5)
Handgrip strength testa (kg) −0.7 (− 1.8 to 0.3) 1.1 (− 0.02 to 2.2) 0.2 (− 0.9 to 1.2) −0.9 (− 2.4 to 0.6) 0.9 (− 0.6 to 2.4) − 1.8 (− 3.4 to − 0.3)
Timed up and go test (sec) −0.7 (−1.1 to − 0.2) −0.7 (− 1.1 to − 0.2) −0.5 (− 0.9 to − 0.03) −0.2 (− 0.8 to 0.5) −0.2 (− 0.8 to 0.5) −0.002 (− 0.6 to 0.6)
Range of motion (degrees)
 Flexion/Extension 1.9 (−1.3 to 5.1) −0.5 (− 3.7 to 2.7) 0.04 (− 3.2 to 3.3) 1.8 (− 2.8 to 6.4) −0.5 (− 5.1 to 4.0) 2.4 (− 2.2 to 6.9)
 Rotation − 0.2 (− 3.2 to 2.8) 0.3 (− 2.7 to 3.3) −0.8 (− 3.8 to 2.2) 0.6 (− 3.7 to 4.9) 1.1 (− 3.1 to 5.4) −0.5 (− 4.8 to 3.7)
 Lateral flexion − 0.7 (− 3.0 to 1.6) 0.1 (− 2.2 to2.4) − 2.0 (− 4.3 to 0.3) 1.3 (− 1.9 to 4.6) 2.1 (− 1.1 to 5.3) −0.8 (− 4.0 to 2.5)
  1. aAnalysis includes 62 participants in the SMT + HEP group, 61 in the SEP + HEP group, and 61 in the HEP group
  2. (Handgrip strength test was added as an objective measure after the trial was started therefore not available for all participants)
  3. CI, confidence interval; HEP, home exercise program; SEP, supervised exercise program; SMT, spinal manipulative therapy