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Table 3 Risk of bias table based on Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Criteria for high risk of bias studies; non-randomized trials

From: The effects of spinal manipulation on performance-related outcomes in healthy asymptomatic adult population: a systematic review of best evidence

Author, Year Research Question Randomization Concealment Blinding Similarity at baseline Similarity between arms Outcome measures Percent drop-out Intention to treat Results between sites Level of evidence
Barbosa et al., 2014 Y N NA NA CS CS Y 0% Y NA 1-
Bonci et al., 1990 N N NA NA Y N CS 0% Y NA 1-
Deutschmann et al., 2011 Y N NA NA Y N Y 0% Y NA 1-
Lauro et al., 1991 Y CS NA NA N CS CS CS Y NA 1-
Nansel et al., 1991 Y N NA NA CS CS Y 0% Y NA 1-
  1. Y Yes, N No, CS Can’t say, NA Not applicable
  2. According to SIGN Criteria, if groups are not randomized, the criteria can continue to be used, but sections 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 are not applied, corresponding to randomization, concealment and blinding