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Table 3 Headache referral characteristics across the use of ICHD primary headache diagnostic criteria

From: Prevalence and factors associated with the use of primary headache diagnostic criteria by chiropractors

Chiropractic headache referral Used diagnostic criteria for primary headache types  
No (n = 61) Yes (n = 334) p-value
Headache referral (receiving) % %  
 Headache referral from GP Never 42 27 < 0.001
Rarely 46 40  
Sometimes 7 29  
Often 5 4  
 Headache referral from medical specialist (neurologist, rheumatologist, orthopaedic, psychiatrist) Never 89 77 < 0.001
Rarely 9 19  
Sometimes 2 4  
Often 0 1  
 Headache referral from Psychologist Never 89 68 < 0.001
Rarely 9 19  
Sometimes 2 11  
Often 0 2  
 Headache referral from Dentist Never 67 40 0.002
Rarely 21 33  
Sometimes 9 23  
Often 4 5  
 Headache referral from Physiotherapist Never 74 67 0.684
Rarely 19 21  
Sometimes 7 10  
Often 0 2  
 Headache referral from Osteopath Never 89 78 0.154
Rarely 11 16  
Sometimes 0 5  
Often 0 1  
 Headache referral from CAM practitioners (inc. acupuncturist, herbalist, naturopath, massage therapist, counsellor) Never 28 11 < 0.001
Rarely 28 19  
Sometimes 35 47  
Often 9 23  
Headache referral (sending)
 Headache referral to GP Never 19 7 < 0.001
Rarely 46 29  
Sometimes 33 55  
Often 2 9  
 Headache referral to medical specialist (neurologist, rheumatologist, orthopaedic, psychiatrist) via GP Never 25 17 < 0.001
Rarely 58 36  
Sometimes 18 42  
Often 0 4  
 Headache referral to Psychologist Never 74 47 0.004
Rarely 19 34  
Sometimes 7 16  
Often 0 2  
 Headache referral to Dentist Never 39 15 0.001
Rarely 32 42  
Sometimes 26 37  
ften 4 5  
 Headache referral to Physiotherapist Never 72 54 0.106
Rarely 21 31  
Sometimes 7 13  
Often 0 2  
 Headache referral to Osteopath Never 91 74 0.025
Rarely 7 21  
Sometimes 2 4  
Often 0 0  
 Headache referral to CAM practitioners (eg. acupuncturist, naturopath, massage therapist, counsellor) Never 23 7 0.001
Rarely 28 23  
Sometimes 33 50  
Often 16 20  
Headache referral (reasons)
 Headache referral to confirm headache diagnosis Never 54 21 < 0.001
Rarely 32 43  
Sometimes 12 32  
Often 2 4  
 Headache referral to improve coping skills and headache disability management Never 39 11 < 0.001
Rarely 26 31  
Sometimes 33 47  
Often 2 10  
 Headache referral to investigate headache red-flag Never 0 1 < 0.001
Rarely 42 12  
Sometimes 42 51  
Often 16 36  
 Headache referral to provide pain relief for acute headache attacks Never 26 10 0.004
Rarely 33 29  
Sometimes 33 48  
Often 7 12  
 Headache referral to help provide headache prevention Never 37 17 0.004
Rarely 33 35  
Sometimes 25 39  
Often 5 9