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Table 5 Headache management characteristics across the use of ICHD primary headache diagnostic criteria

From: Prevalence and factors associated with the use of primary headache diagnostic criteria by chiropractors

Chiropractic headache management Used diagnostic criteria for primary headache types  
No (n = 61) Yes (n = 334) p-value
Chiropractic headache management - migraine % %  
 Manual adjusting/manipulation (including Diversified, Gonstead) Never 7 5 0.751
Rarely 14 12  
Often 45 51  
Almost every migraine patient 34 32  
 Non-thrust spinal mobilisations Never 18 9 0.001
Rarely 37 19  
Often 34 58  
Almost every migraine patient 11 14  
 Instrument adjusting Never 14 9 0.407
Rarely 18 18  
Often 48 58  
Almost every migraine patient 20 14  
 Drop piece, Thompson or similar Never 29 29 0.944
Rarely 34 37  
Often 22 28  
Almost every migraine patient 5 6  
 Massage, myofascial technique, stretching or trigger-points to neck/shoulder area Never 9 2 < 0.001
Rarely 25 9  
Often 48 42  
Almost every migraine patient 18 47  
 Electro-physical therapies (TENS, ultrasound etc) Never 89 77 0.236
Rarely 9 15  
Often 2 7  
Almost every migraine patient 0 2  
 Soft tissue or exercise therapy to temporomandibular region Never 29 5 < 0.001
Rarely 20 27  
Often 41 54  
Almost every migraine patient 11 14  
 Prescriptive exercises for the neck/shoulder region Never 14 2 < 0.001
Rarely 20 14  
Often 46 52  
Almost every migraine patient 20 33  
 Advice on stress management Never 2 0 0.019
Rarely 16 9  
Often 59 51  
Almost every migraine patient 23 41  
 Advice on diet or fitness Never 2 1 0.057
Rarely 12 14  
Often 64 49  
Almost every migraine patient 21 37  
 Advice on Headache triggers Never 0 0 0.005
Rarely 14 5  
Often 52 45  
Almost every migraine patient 34 50  
Chiropractic headache management - tension headache
 Manual adjusting/manipulation (including Diversified, Gonstead) Never 9 4 0.291
Rarely 11 7  
Often 36 42  
Almost every tension headache patient 45 47  
 Non-thrust spinal mobilisations Never 27 11 0.003
Rarely 27 21  
Often 38 52  
Almost every tension headache patient 9 16  
 Instrument adjusting Never 14 11 0.810
Rarely 20 18  
Often 48 55  
Almost every tension headache patient 18 16  
 Drop piece, Thompson or similar Never 32 35 0.662
Rarely 25 27  
Often 38 30  
Almost every tension headache patient 5 8  
 Massage, myofascial technique, stretching or trigger-points to neck/shoulder area Never 5 3 < 0.001
Rarely 27 6  
Often 43 40  
Almost every tension headache patient 25 51  
 Electro-physical therapies (TENS, ultrasound etc) Never 89 79 0.374
Rarely 9 13  
Often 2 6  
Almost every tension headache patient 0 2  
 Soft tissue or exercise therapy to temporo- mandibular region Never 18 8 0.017
Rarely 32 25  
Often 43 50  
Almost every tension headache patient 7 18  
 Prescriptive exercises for the neck/shoulder region Never 11 1 < 0.001
Rarely 20 8  
Often 45 45  
Almost every tension headache patient 25 46  
 Advice on stress management Never 2 0 0.002
Rarely 14 9  
Often 59 42  
Almost every tension headache patient 25 49  
 Advice on diet or fitness Never 2 2 0.480
Rarely 11 11  
Often 59 48  
Almost every tension headache patient 29 39  
 Headache triggers advice Never 7 0 < 0.001
Rarely 14 7  
Often 46 47  
Almost every tension headache patient 32 46