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Table 3 Statutory legislation in countries where chiropractic is legalized (N = 68)

From: The chiropractic workforce: a global review

  n (%)
The legal framework governing chiropractic is
 National/Federal legislation (i.e. covers the entire country) 43 (63.2)
 Regional/State/Provincial/Canton legislation 2 (2.9)
 A combination of national/federal legislation with regional/state/provincial/canton rules 3 (4.4)
 Missing 20 (29.4)
The chiropractic legislation stands alone
 Yes 13 (19.1)
 No 55 (80.9)
 Missing 0
The legislation contains provision to establish a statutory regulator
 Yes 44 (64.7)
 No 6 (8.8)
 Missing 18 (26.5)
A statutory regulator exists to set standards
 Yes 27 (39.7)
 Missing 41 (60.3)
Roles of the statutory regulatora
 Maintain a statutory register 22 (32.4)
 Set standards of ethics/conduct and proficiency 22 (32.4)
 Set standards of education 14 (20.6)
 Accredit educational programs 12 (17.7)
 Set standards of continuing education 11 (16.2)
 Set standards of health 11 (16.2)
 Administer fitness to practice (disciplinary and health) hearings and impose sanctions 18 (26.5)
 Missing 41 (60.3)
Regulations and/or rules under the legislation to provide for registration or licensure of chiropractors
 National/federal level. 39 (57.4)
 State/provincial level. 3 (4.4)
 None 8 (11.8)
 Missing 18 (26.5)
The legal framework contains provision for disciplinary/fitness to practise hearings
 Yes 31 (45.6)
 No 10 (14.7)
 Missing 27 (39.7)
Practicing without a license/without being registered is an offence
 Criminal offence 13 (19.1)
 Civil offence 15 (22.1)
 May practice but cannot use title 1 (1.5)
 Missing 39 (57.4)
Sanctions available when a chiropractor has been found guilty of unacceptable professional conduct/serious professional misconduct under the legal frameworka
 Removal from the register (striking off) 23 (12.0)
 Admonishment 21 (11.0)
 Written undertakings 10 (5.0)
 Conditions of practice order 12 (6.0)
 Suspension from practice 21 (11.0)
 Financial penalty/fine 11 (6.0)
 Other 2 (1.0)
 Missing 42 (61.8)
  1. aThis may add up to more than 100%, as multiple answers may apply