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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Muscle energy technique for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

First author, publication year No. randomised, (dropouts, if applicable) Age in years (mean and SD or range) Treatment duration; No. of treatments Intervention protocol Comparator Outcome measures
Anand 2013
I: 15 (NS)
C: 15 (NS)
40–70 3 days; 3 MET + CPT CPT 6MWT
Borg scale
Sule 2017
Total: 30 (NS) 40–60 NS; NS MET Sham + CPT FEV1
Wada 2016
I: 15 (1)
C: 15 (1)
I: 61 (5.4)
C: 64 (5.6)
12 weeks; 24 MET + exercise Sham + exercise 6MWT
Modified Borg scale
  1. Abbreviations: CCQ Clinical COPD Questionnaire, C control group, CPT conventional chest physiotherapy, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, I intervention group, MET muscle energy technique, NS not specified, SD standard deviation, 6MWT six-minute walk test