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Table 1 “The four levels of patient activation” [66]

From: Promoting the use of self-management in patients with spine pain managed by chiropractors and chiropractic interns: barriers and design of a theory-based knowledge translation intervention

Level Description
Level 1 Individuals tend to be passive and feel overwhelmed by managing their own health. They may not understand their role in the care process.
Level 2 Individuals may lack the knowledge and confidence to manage their health
Level 3 Individuals appear to be taking action but may still lack the confidence and skill to support their behaviours.
Level 4 Individuals have adopted many of the behaviours needed to support their health but may not be able to maintain them in the face of life stressors