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Table 2 Participant characteristics at baseline by Group (values are mean ± SD for continuous variables and N (%) for dichotomous variables)

From: Addition of MoodGYM to physical treatments for chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial

  Control group (n = 54) Intervention group (n = 54) Total (n = 108)
Participants
 Age (years) 50.6 (14.4) 50.1 (12.8) 50.4 (13.6)
 Male 22 (40.7%) 32 (46.3%) 54 (50%)
 Female 25 (59.3%) 29 (53.7%) 54 (50%)
 BMI 26.7 (4.0) 27 (5.0) 26.8 (4.5)
Pain Intensity
 PNRS (0–10) 4.9 (2.0) 5.1 (1.8) 5.0 (1.9)
Pain Duration
 3–12 months 3 (5.6%) 1 (1.9%) 6 (5.5%)
 12 months −2 years 6 (11.1%) 8 (14.8%) 14 (13.0%)
 2–5 years 8 (14.8%) 8 (14.8%) 16 (14.8%)
  > 5 years 37 (68.5%) 35 (64.8%) 72 (66.7%)
Pain Description
 Always present, level of pain varies 32 (59.3%) 36 (66.7%) 68 (63.0%)
 Often present, with pain-free periods < 6 h 14 (25.9%) 10 (18.5%) 24 (22.2%)
Cause of Pain
 Injury at home 3 (5.6%) 5 (9.3%) 8 (7.4%)
 Injury at work 8 (14.8%) 8 (14.8%) 16 (14.8)
 Motor vehicle accident 4 (7.4%) 2 (3.7%) 6 (5.6%)
 No obvious cause 25 (46.3%) 23 (42.6%) 48 (44.4%)
 Injury other setting 6 (11.1%) 7 (13.0%) 13 (12.0%)
Functional Status
 RMD (0–24) 9.9 (4.7) 9.9 (4.2) 9.9 (4.4)
 PSFS (0–10) 4.1 (1.3) 4.2 (1.5) 4.2 (1.4)
 WAI (0–10) 5.6 (2.1) 5.7 (2.1) 5.7 (2.1)
Psychological Status
 PSEQ (0–60) 37.8 (13.0) 40.1 (10.0) 44.5 (12.3)
 PCS Total (0–52) 20.9 (12.5) 20.0 (11.3) 20.5 (11.9)
 PCS Rumination (0–16) 7.59 (4.3) 7.6 (4.2) 7.6 (4.2)
 PCS Magnifying (0–12) 4.2 (3.0) 3.6 (2.8) 3.9 (2.9)
 PCS Helplessness (0–24) 9.1 (6.0) 8.9 (5.6) 9.0 (5.8)
 DASS21 Total (0–63) 16.8 (12.6) 15.0 (10.1) 15.9 (11.4)
 DASS21 Depression (0–21) 5.5 (5.3) 5.3 (4.8) 5.4 (5.0)
 DASS21 Anxiety (0–21) 3.6 (3.6) 2.8 (2.9) 3.2 (3.3)
 DASS21 Stress (0–21) 7.7 (4.7) 7.0 (3.9) 7.3 (4.3)
Work Status
 Full-time 21 (38.9%) 24 (44.4%) 45 (41.7%)
 Part-time 14 (25.9%) 18 (33.3%) 32 (29.6%)
 Work hours affected by pain 26 (48.1%) 23 (42.6%) 49 (45.4%)
 Work type affected by pain 34 (63%) 33 (61.1%) 67 (62.0%)
Health Status
 Self-reported depression/ anxiety 14 (25.9%) 12 (22.2%) 26 (24.1%)
 Osteoarthritis 12 (22.2%) 8 (14.8%) 20 (18.5%)
 High blood pressure 10 (18.5%) 4 (7.4%) 14 (13.0%)
 Stomach ulcer 2 (3.7%) 4 (7.4%) 6 (5.6%)
  1. Note: BMI (body mass index), PNRS (pain numeric rating scale, RMD (roland morris disability questionnaire), PSFS (patient specific functional scale), WAI (work ability index), PSEQ (patient self-efficacy questionnaire), PCS (pain catastrophizing scale), DASS21 (depression anxiety stress 21-item scale)