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Table 6 Outcomes and outcome measurements identified in the ‘Pathophysiological manifestations’ domain for PGP and LPP respectively

From: Outcomes and outcomes measurements used in intervention studies of pelvic girdle pain and lumbopelvic pain: a systematic review

Pathophysiological manifestations PGP studies (n = 33) LPP studies (n = 74)
Pain location/ pain provocation Topographic representation [27]
Specific tests for SIJ region/ pubic symphysis [20, 28,29,30]
Physical exam [31]
Physical exam tests [65, 85, 86, 88, 116]
Physical exam [66]
Recovery of symptoms Physical exam [32]  
Posture Postural analysis [20] Tests for levels of ASIS and PSIS [116]
Continence International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ) [48, 49] Set of purposely devised questions [67]
Pubis symphysis mobility Radiographic examination - Chamberlian method [29]  
Muscle function (strength/ endurance) Isometric trunk extensor/flexor tests [33] Pelvic floor muscles: surface electromyography [68]
Hip extensors (max voluntary extension): dynamometer [68]
Back extensors/flexors: isometric endurance timed tests [68]
PFM strength – Vaginal balloon catheter [106]
Gait speed/endurance 6MWT [33] Timed 20 m walk test [68]
Flexibility / Digital forward
flexmeter (HRS-220, Japan) [69]
Anthropometric outcomes / Weight (KG) [57, 104]
BMI (KG/m2) [57]
Pregnancy outcomes / maternal outcomes Antenatal, intrapartum, neonatal and infant data that are normally registered in the Medical Birth Register [115] Maternal: Gestation week at delivery, live births, length of labour, induction required, mode of delivery, episiotomy or a perineal tear, estimated blood loss at birth, antenatal and postnatal haemoglobin count, pain relief during labour. Neonatal: Gender, weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, admittance
to neonatal unit [86]
Apgar score, birth weight, perinatal loss [84]
Apgar scores [67]
Delivery/labour [24, 105]
Gestational week of delivery [105]
Surgical outcomes (fluoroscopy time, insertion time for guide wires, operation time, screw position) Not specified [117]
Post-op CT scan [117]