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Table 1 Inception cohorts: summary of risk factors for back pain the ‘disease’

From: Potential risk factors and triggers for back pain in children and young adults. A scoping review, part I: incident and episodic back pain

Variable Number of studies Number of studies: increased risk Number of studies: decreased risk Number of studies not significant Strength of association (95%CI)
Female sex 6 2 1 3 Negative association:
OR 0.4 (0.3, 0.8) [25] (c)
Positive association:
OR 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) [29] (c)
OR 1.8 (1.1, 3.1) [24]
Older Age 4 3 0 1 OR 2.1 (1.2, 3.7) [25] (c)
OR 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) (boys) [24]
OR 3.4 [27] (graph interpretation, c)
Increased physical activity 3 2 0 1 RR 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) [23]
OR 2.3 [27] (graph interpretation, c)
Psychosocial 2 2 0 0 Dysfunctional coping: OR 1.4 (1.1, 2.0) (boys) [24]
Anxiety sensitivity: OR: 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) (boys) [24]
Somatosensory amplification:
OR 1.8 (1.0,3.1) (girls) [24]
Psychological distress: OR 1.9 (1.1, 3.2) [26]
Emotional or behavioural disorders:
OR 1.9 (1.0, 3.4) [26]
Socioeconomic 1 1 0 0 Lower parental education: OR 1.7 (1.1, 2.8) [26]
Increased growth 1 1 0 0 Increased growth spurt one SD (4.3 cm) 11–14 yr:
OR 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) [28]
Muscle strength 1 1 0 0 Increased back flexor strength OR 2.8 [27] (graph interpretation, c)
Smoking 1 1 0 0 Heavy smoking: OR 1.9 (1.1, 3.1) [26]
Increased BMI 2 0 0 2 NA
Illness 1 0 0 1 NA
  1. OR Odds ratio, RR Relative risk (c): parameter measure calculated from the provided results within study i.e. percentages converted to odds ratios, NA Not applicable (no significant results), BMI Body mass index