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Table 1 Summary of temporal precursor variables: cross-sectional and prospective studies

From: Potential risk factors and triggers for back pain in children and young adults. A scoping review, part II: unclear or mixed types of back pain

Variable Number of studies Number of studies: Increased risk Number of studies: Decreased risk Number of studies not significant Strength of association (95% CI)
Female sex 53 32 3 18 Positive association:
OR 1.9 (1.4, 2.0) (c) [10]
OR 1.9 (1.4, 2.4) (c) [16]
OR 2.4 (1.9, 3.1) (LBP), OR 2.2 (1.6, 2.9)(MBP) (c) [17]
OR 1.6 (1.2, 2.0) [26]
OR 1.7 (1.4, 2.1) (c) [28]
OR 1.6 (1.4, 2.0) (c) [29]
OR 7.7 (4.7, 12.6)) [34]
OR 1.7 (1.5, 2.0) [39]
OR 1.3 (1.4, 3.3) [42]
OR 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) [43]
OR 2.2 (1.4, 3.3) [44]
OR 1.5 (1.1, 1.9) [45]
OR 1.5 (1.1, 1.9) [47]
OR 2.4 (1.7, 3.3) [51]
OR 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) [53]
OR 2.1 (1.6, 2.9) [54]
OR 1.4 (1.0, 2.1) (c) [58]
OR 1.1 (1.1, 1.2) [59]
OR 1.9 (1.7, 2.2) [64]
OR 2.1 (1.6, 2.7) [66]
PR 1.1 (1.1, 1.2) [69]
PR 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) [70]
OR 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) [74]
OR 1.8 (1.2, 2.7) (c) [76]
OR 4.6 (1.8, 11.7) [78]
OR 2.2 (1.6, 2.9) [77]
OR 2.4 (1.9, 3.2) [79]
OR 1.6 (1.3, 2.0) (c) [81]
OR 1.8 (1.3, 2.4) (c) [83]
OR 2.7 (1.2, 6.1) [84]
Females: 28%, Males 19% [85]
OR 1.9 (1.3, 3.0) [89]
Negative association:
Males: HR 3.2 (2.7, 3.7) [27]
OR 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) [50]
OR 0.3 (0.2, 0.5) (c) [68]
Older Age 34 19 2 13 Positive association:
OR 2.9 (2.6, 3.3) (c) [32]
OR 1.5 (1.1, 2.3) [35]
OR (17 index), 21 yr 2.2 (1.2, 4.2), 23 yr 3.2 (1.7, 6.2), 24 yr 2.8 (1.5, 5.3) [42]
OR (10–11 index), 12–14 yr: 1.1 (1.1, 1.3) [47]
OR 1.1 (1.1, 1.2) [51]
(15 index) 16/17 yr OR 1.7 (1.2, 2.3), 18/19 yr: OR 1.8 (1.2, 2.8) [53]
14 to 15 yr: 6.4% increase [54]
OR 1.2 [58]
r 0.2 [61]
(17/18 index), 21+ yr: OR 1.6 (1.2, 2.1) [65]
(10–12 index), 13–16 yr: OR 1.5 (1.2, 2.0) [66]
(per year): OR 1.2 (1.1, 1.4) [72]
OR 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) [74]
Older 25.1%, younger adolescents 12.4% [75]
(12 index), 14 yrs.: OR 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) [80]
Younger age: OR 1.5 (males), OR 1.4 (females) [81]
11 yr 18%, 14 yr 34% (girls) 11 yr 14%, 14 yr 25% (boys) [85]
OR 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) [88]
OR 1.3 (1.2–1.4) [89]
Negative association:
Younger age: OR 0.2 (0.1, 0.6) [46]
OR 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) [67]
Positive family history 19 15 0 4 OR 3.6 (1.3, 10.2) [11]
OR 2.1 (1.4, 3.1) [35]
OR 2.0 (1.1, 4.0) [36]
OR 2.6 (1.4, 5.9) [38]
OR 2.1 [40]
OR 3.8 (2.9, 5.9) [41]
OR 1.8 (1.4, 2.4) [43]
OR: 1.5 (1.1, 1.9) (c) [48]
OR 1.7 [58]
OR 1.8 (1.5, 2.0) [64]
PR 1.2 (1.2, 1.3) [69]
PR 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) [70]
OR 2.0 (1.2, 3.3) [72]
OR 2.3 (1.2, 4.7) [89]
OR 2.6 (1.9, 3.6) [90]
Socioeconomic factors 15 7 0 8 Higher Socioeconomic index: OR 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) [34]
Higher social class: OR: 0.9 (0.8, 0.9) [55]
Parental low level of education: OR 1.8 (1.1, 2.0) [62]
Ethnicity: (Index white) Asian PR: 1.2 (1.1, 1.4), indigenous PR: 1.4 (1.3, 1.5) [70]
Non-white: PR 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) [71]
Location (index peripheral center) Urban centre: OR 3.1 [73]
Residence: 52% (city), 43% (village) [83]
Increased height or increased growth spurt 12 4 1 7 High growth spurt: OR 3.1 (1.5, 6.0) [4]
linear growth: IRR 1.2 (1.2, 1.2) [18]
Shorter than median height (158 cm): RR 2.1 (1.2, 3.8) [23]
Height: OR 1.2 (1.0–1.5) [31]
Taller: t test − 3.3 [58]
Later pubertal status 6 4 1 1 Positive association
IRR 1.5 (1.2, 2.0) (Tanner stage 2), IRR 2.1 (1.5, 3.0) (Tanner stage 3) IRR 3.3 (2.1, 5.0) (Tanner stage 4/5) [18]
OR 1.6 (1.3, 2.0) (USA), OR 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) (Dutch) [22]
OR 2.0 (girls), OR 1.9 (boys) [63]
Stage 4: OR 2.0 (1.3, 3.5), stage 5: OR 2.1 (1.1, 1.4) [86]
Negative association:
HR 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) (males) [27]
History of back pain 3 3 0 0 BP in adolescence for BP in adulthood: OR 4.3 (3.5, 5.4) [21] History of BP: OR 2.7 (1.1, 7.1) (ever), OR 9.1 (3.0, 27.2) (>  7 days) [33]
History of BP: OR 7.7 (4.7–12.6) (girls) [34]
  1. OR odds ratio, PR prevalence ratio, HR hazard ratio, RR relative risk, IRR incidence rate ratio, LBP low back pain, MBP mid back pain, BP back pain, (c): parameter measure calculated from the provided results within study i.e. percentages converted to odds ratios