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Table 3 Summary of Potential Risk factors

From: Potential risk factors and triggers for back pain in children and young adults. A scoping review, part II: unclear or mixed types of back pain

Potential risk factor Likely Weak/no significance Mixed results/ inconsistent Limited research
Female sex X    
Older age/ advanced pubertal status X    
Positive family history of back pain X    
Increased growth spurt X    
History of back pain X    
Smoking X    
Insufficient sleep X    
Increased screen time   X   
Work   X   
Psychosocial factors    X  
Muscle flexibility    X  
Socioeconomic status    X  
Backpack related factors    X  
Height and weight    X  
Physical activity    X  
Spinal posture     X
Sitting position     X
Systemic/illness factors     X
Muscle endurance     X