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Table 2 A summary of the included RCTs and their use of evidence regarding indications for Maintenance Care and frequency of care, as well as the outcomes and when they were measured

From: Chiropractic maintenance care - what’s new? A systematic review of the literature

Author, year of publi-cationSample size, Number of cliniciansInclusion criteria:Contents and frequency of Maintenance Care visitsComparator(s)Time of follow-upsOutcome
- = no effect + = effect
Previous episodesPersistent painImprovement with initial care
Senna 2011 [18]N = 60
3 MDs
xA month of initial care followed by Maintenance Care every 2 weeks for 9 months1: Sham SMT for a month without continued care
2: SMT for a month without continued care
After 1, 4, 7
and 10 months
Disability +
Pain +
Health +
Martel 2011 [19]N = 98
3 DCs
xActive Treatment: Monthly &
Advice: every 2nd month for 10 months
1: SMT + Exercise
2: Attention only
After initial treatment, mid-trial
and end of trial
Pain –
Function –
Disability +
Maiers 2018 [17]N = 180
1 clinic with DCs + ETs
xMonthly for 36 weeks1: Treatment for 12 weeksWeeks 4, 12, 34,
36, 52 and 78.
Disability -
Eklund 2018 [16]N = 319
35 DC’s
XxXEvery 1–3 months for 12 months1: Treatment after symptoms reoccur on patient’s initiativeWeekly for 52 weeksNumber of days with bothersome pain +
  1. DC Doctor of Chiropractic, ET Exercise Therapist, SMT Spinal Manipulative Therapy