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Table 4 Effect on cardiovascular autonomic outcomes in an RCT on spinal manipulation. Effect estimates were obtained using generalized linear mixed models

From: The effect of a single spinal manipulation on cardiovascular autonomic activity and the relationship to pressure pain threshold: a randomized, cross-over, sham-controlled trial

Outcomes InterceptIntervention (sham as reference)Time (covariate)Intervention × Time (sham as reference)
RRi (ms)Estimates8560.2514
N = 4195% CI820.7 - 892.9− 32.3 - 32.737 - 65.6− 12.9 - 21.4
p values<  0.010.989<  0.010.626
Log HF-HRV (ms2)Estimates3.004− 0.0130.0510.026
N = 4195% CI2.863 - 3.144− 0.118 - 0.0920.025 - 0.076− 0.009 - 0.062
p values<  0.010.805<  0.010.152
HF normalized unitEstimates67.3− 0.8− 1.90.7
N = 4195% CI63.0 - 71.8− 5.4 - 3.8− 3.4 - − 0.3− 1.0 - 2.4
p values<  0.010.7270.0180.420
Log LF-HRV (ms2)Estimates2.636− 0.0010.0890.018
N = 4195% CI2.518 - 2.753− 0.095 - 0.0930.059 - 0.117− 0.02 - 0.056
p values<  0.010.984<  0.010.360
Log LF/HFEstimates− 0.3690.0080.038− 0.011
N = 4195% CI− 0.466 - − 0.271− 0.095 - 0.1110.006 - 0.07− 0.048 - 0.027
p values<  0.010.8770.0180.580
Log RMSSD (ms)Estimates1.666− 0.0050.0330.013
N = 4195% CI1.591 - 1.74− 0.063 - 0.0520.02 - 0.045− 0.006 - 0.032
p values<  0.010.857<  0.010.195
Log SDNN (ms)Estimates1.7030.0010.0300.010
N = 4195% CI1.648 - 1.756− 0.04 - 0.0410.021 - 0.038− 0.004 - 0.024
p values<  0.010.962<  0.010.188
SBP (mmHg)Estimates115.6− 0.91.2− 0.7
N = 3095% CI110.2 - 120.9− 6.4 - 4.50.06 - 2.3− 2.2 - 0.8
p values<  0.010.7270.0380.389
DBP (mmHg)Estimates56.7− 0.61.07− 0.9
N = 3095% CI53.3 - 60.1− 3.1 - 1.90.3 - 1.8− 1.7 - 0.03
p values<  0.010.639<  0.010.059
MBP (mmHg)Estimates72.7− 0.81.02− 0.75
N = 3095% CI69.2 - 76.1− 3.7 - 2.10.2 - 1.7− 1.6 - 0.1
p values<  0.010.579<  0.010.101
LF-SBP (mm2Hg)Estimates1.5570.0030.0500.050
N = 3095% CI1.252 - 1.861− 0.272 - 0.278− 0.02 - 0.12− 0.048 - 0.149
p values<  0.010.9810.1610.313
  1. Notes
  2. - Significant effects at p < 0.05 are bold faced
  3. - For RRi there were a quadratic Time trend (Estimate: − 10. p < 0.01) and Intervention by quadratic Time trend (Estimate: − 0.2. p = 0.931) terms in the model
  4. - For LF-SBP we used a gamma distribution with log link function
  5. Abbreviations:
  6. RRi intervals between normal beats; Log logarithm with base 10; HF high frequency; HF normalized unit: HF/(HF + LF) x 100; LF low frequency; RMSSD root mean square of the successive differences between normal heartbeats; SDNN standard deviation of the inter beat interval of normal sinus beats; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; MBP mean blood pressure