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Table 10 Outcome tools used and improved with DN

From: Dry needling for spine related disorders: a scoping review

 Cervical (55 studies)TLP (22 studies)
No. studiesNo. improved with DNaNo. studiesNo. improved with DNa
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)35331111
Pain Pressure Threshold (PPT)312877
Range of motion (ROM)272443
Short Form-36 (SF-36)8711
Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS)8866
Beck Depression Index (BDI)4321
Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)2288
Self-rated improvement scale1011
Patient reported pain2222
SF-12 Physical1111
SF-12 Mental1111
Neck Disability Index (NDI)1313  
Medication use5522
Nottingham Health Profile (NHP)32  
Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI)22  
Headache index22  
Symptom Severity Index (SSI)22  
Verbal Pain Scale22  
Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)21  
Profile of Mood States (POMS)21  
Beck Anxiety Index (BAI)11  
Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH)11  
Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (GDS-SF)11  
Neck Pain Disability Index (NPDS)11  
Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (Spanish)11  
Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADLS)11  
Quadruple Visual Analog Scale (QVAS)11  
Sympathetic skin response (SSR)b11  
Assessment of change (11 point)10  
Fall Index10  
Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Inventory10  
Global Rating of Change (GRoC)  43
Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)  22
US-imaging of multifidi  22
Functional Rating Index  11
McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ)  11
Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire  11
Patient specific functional scale  11
Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ)  11
Sleep quality2222
Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR)  10
4 point patient subjective improvement scale  11
Total (percent improved)166149 (89.76%)6358 (92.06%)
  1. Some studies used more than one outcome measure
  2. aimprovement as per author
  3. bphysiological response