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Table 2 Characteristics of systematic reviews on Plagiocephaly

From: The effectiveness and safety of conservative interventions for positional plagiocephaly and congenital muscular torticollis: a synthesis of systematic reviews and guidance

AuthorsParticipants/n/age/gender/condition (where reported)Intervention (Conservative-repositioning, helmet, MT)Timing of interventionNumber and type of studies included in reviewMethod of data synthesis (qualitative/meta-analysis)
Baird et al. 2016 [8]Paediatric (< 18 years of age) patients with non-synostotic plagiocephaly or brachycephaly.Manual TherapyNR3/ 2 x RCT, 1x prospectiveNarrative
Klimo et al. 2016 [18]RepositioningNR3 RCT’s (Class I), 1 prospective cohort study (Class II), and 6 retrospective cohort studies (Class III)Narrative
Tamber et al. 2016 [19]Helmet therapyNR1 prospective randomized controlled trial (Class II), 5 prospective comparative studies, (Class II), and 9 retrospective comparative studies (Class II).Narrative
Bialocerkowski et al. 2005 [20]Children < 12 months/PPPositioning Vs Helmet + Manual therapyNR16/ 12 case series, 4 comparative studiesNarrative
Goh et al. 2013 [21]Children/PPHelmet therapyNR36/ 21 were primary research literature articles, 12 reviews, 2 letters, 1 methodology descriptorNarrative
McGarry et al. 2008 [22]Infants/PPHelmet therapyNR20/ 3 reviews, 8 measurement, 9 mixed research methodNarrative
Paquereau, J. 2013 [23]Children < 18 months/n = 1724 in original articles/PPOrthotics Vs Repositioning1-15 months18/ 6 literature reviews, 12 original articlesNarrative
Parnell Prevost et al. 2019 [13]Infants/0–12 weeks/paediatric conditions including cranial asymmetryManual TherapyNR50/ 32 RCT’s and 18 Observational studiesNarrative
Shweikeh et al. 2013 [7]Children 3-18mths/PPRepositioning Vs Helmet Vs Manual therapyLong term15/ 2 RCT’s, 4 case controls, 4 retrospective studies, 2 prospective studies, 2 longitudinal, 1 cross-sectionalNarrative
Xia et al. 2008 [11]Healthy infants < 12 months with PPMoulding helmet therapy vs head repositioning therapy6 months7 cohort studiesNarrative