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Table 4 Summary of narrative analyses of treatments for Plagiocephaly

From: The effectiveness and safety of conservative interventions for positional plagiocephaly and congenital muscular torticollis: a synthesis of systematic reviews and guidance

AuthorVs ControlFollow-up time-pointCranial asymmetry – measurement methodEffectLevel of evidenceAmstar
Helmet therapy
 Goh et al. 2013 [21]NRNRAnthropometric assessmentInconclusiveLow2
 McGarry et al. 2008 [22]NRUp to 13 monthsBands, anthropometric callipers, moulding ring, observation, photographyFavourableLow4.5
 Paquereau et al. 2013 [23]Repositioning Cranial index, CVAI, 3D, visualFavourableLow3.5
 Shweikeh et al. 2013 [7]Repositioning and usual care>  12 monthsNRFavourable in older childrenNR2
 Xia et al. 2008 [11]Repositioning only6 monthsNR (one study Helmet ×1.3 greater than repositioning)FavourableLow8
 Congress of NSSR and EBG
Tamber et al. 2016 [19]
Conservative care<  7 monthsAnthropometry CVAI, 3DFavourable in mod-severe cases or older childrenLow7
Repositioning therapy
 Shweikeh et al. 2013 [7]Usual care<  12 monthsNRFavourableNR2
 Congress of NSSR and EBG
Klimo et al. 2016 [18]
HelmetNRCranial index, CVAI, photography, 3D analysis,UnfavourableModerate7
 Congress of NSSR and EBG
Klimo et al. 2016 [8]
Manual TherapyNRCranial index, CVAI, photography, 3D analysisUnfavourableHigh7
 Congress of NSSR and EBG
Klimo et al. 2016 [8]
Usual careNRCranial index, CVAI, photography, 3D analysisFavourableModerate to high7
Manual therapy
 Bialocerkowski et al. 2005 [20]Helmet CVAI, parental perceptionsInconclusiveLow7
 Parnell Prevost et al. 2019 [13]Standard care2 weeksNRInconclusive favourableModerate7
 Congress of NSSR and EBG
Baird et al. 2016 [8]
Positional adviceNRPlagiocephalometryFavourableHigh7
 Congress of NSSR and EBG
Baird et al. 2016 [8]
Positioning pillowNRPlagiocephalometryFavourableModerate7