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Table 6 Adverse event reporting

From: The effectiveness and safety of conservative interventions for positional plagiocephaly and congenital muscular torticollis: a synthesis of systematic reviews and guidance

AuthorsAdverse Events reported
Positional Plagiocephaly
 Bialocerkowski et al. 2005 [20]Not reported
 Goh et al. 2013 [21]Not reported
 McGarry et al. 2008 [22]No serious harm was associated with cranial orthoses. Potential health risks such as skin irritation and breakdown due to excessive pressure, and heat and perspiration were noted. Occasional rashes on the infant’s skin caused by heat or reaction to materials may occur.
 Paquereau et al. 2013 [23]Re-positioning pillows on a mattress reduce the free mobility of the cephalic extremity of the infants. We must therefore wonder about the consequences of the restriction of these spontaneous movements which could have a facilitating role in the onset of the sudden infant death. The risk–benefit balance of the posterior positional plagiocephaly treatment should be taken into account.
 Shweikeh et al. 2013 [7]In the studies that reported adverse events, none were recorded.
 Xia et al. 2008 [11]Not reported
 Parnell Prevost et al. 2019 [13]None occurred in the RCTs. Not reported for observational studies
 Congress of Neurological Surgeons Guideline: Positional Plagiocephaly 2016 [26]Repositioning NR
Physical therapy NR
Helmet therapy NR
 Heidenreich et al. 2018 [25]Not reported
 Parnell Prevost et al. 2019 [13]The RCT included does not mention of adverse events.
Mixed PP and CMT
 Brand et al. 2005 [24]1 x case report: 1 x death following administration of Vojta therapy by physiotherapist for KISS
 Driehuis et al. 2019 [4]2 x case reports: 1 x temporary quadriplegia following cervical spine manipulation in 4-month-old boy and 1 x death following cervical spine manipulation in 3-month-old girl.