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Table 2 Risk of Bias Tables

From: The clinical utility of routine spinal radiographs by chiropractors: a rapid review of the literature

Risk of Bias table: Reliability Studies
Author, Year 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Overall Assessment
Assendelft, 1997 [47] Y Y Y U U N/A Y Y Y Y Y Y Unacceptable (−)
Frymoyer, 1986 [36] Y Y Y Y N/A N/A U U U U Y N Unacceptable (−)
Rosok, 1993 [39] N Y U N/A Y N N/A U Y U Y N Unacceptable (−)
Haas, 1992 [40]a CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS Unacceptable (−)
Haas, 1992 [41]a CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS Unacceptable (−)
Plaugher, 1990 [48] N U U U U N/A Y Y U U Y N Unacceptable (−)
Phillips, 1986 [43] Y Y Y Y N/A N/A U U Y N/A Y N Unacceptable
(−)
Janik, 2001 [49] Y Y U U U N/A Y Y Y Y Y Y Unacceptable
(−)
Haas, 1990 [50] Y Y Y Y N/A N/A Y Y U N/A Rater 1 & 2:
Y
Rater 3:
N
Y Rater 1 & 2: Acceptable (+)
Rater 3:
Unacceptable (−)
Troyanovich, 2000 [51] Y Y Y Y Y N/A Y Y Y U Y Y Acceptable (+)
Troyanovich, 1998 [52] Y Y Y Y Y N/A Y Y Y U Y Y Acceptable (+)
Troyanovich, 1995 [53] Y Y Y Y Y N/A Y Y Y U Y Y Acceptable (+)
McGregor, 1995 [46] Y Y Y Y Y N/A Y Y N Y Y Y Acceptable (+)
Harrison, 2002 [54]b Y Y Y Y Y N/A Y U Y Y Y Y Acceptable (+)
Troyanovich, 1999 [55] Y Y Y U U N/A U Y U U Y Y Acceptable (+)
Jackson, 1993 [56] Y Y Y Y Y N/A Y Y Y Y Y Y Acceptable (+)
  1. Y yes; N no; N/A not applicable; U unclear; ++ high quality; + acceptable quality; − unacceptable quality/rejected
  2. aNo details about the methodology for the reliability study were reported in the paper
  3. b Re-calculation on data from previous study, calculations reported in evidence table with original study
  4. Legend: Reliability Studies, 1.1 Research Question, 1.2 Representative sample, 1.3 Representative raters, 1.4 Rater blinded to other raters, 1.5 Rater blinded to own findings, 1.6 Rater blinded to reference standard, 1.7 Rater blinded to clinical information, 1.8 Rater blinded to additional cues, 1.9 Order of examination, 1.10 Time interval between measurements, 1.11 Test application and interpretation, 1.12 Appropriate statistical measures