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Table 2 Mean (SD) for All outcomes for each group at baseline and 3 days after taping and as mean (95% confidence interval) for within and between-group differences

From: Short-term effect of kinesiology taping on pain, functional disability and lumbar proprioception in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain: a double-blinded, randomized trial

Outcome Groups with CLBP
Mean (SD)
  Difference within groups (95% CI)   Difference between groups (95% CI) Effect size
(Cohen’s d)±
Baseline 3 days after taping 3 days after taping minus Baseline Effect size
(Cohen’s d)±
3 days after taping minus Baseline Effect size
(Cohen’s d)±
Baseline 3 days after taping 3 days after taping
KT
n = 15
Placebo
n = 15
KT
n = 15
Placebo
n = 15
KT
n = 15
  Placebo
n = 15
  KT minus Placebo KT minus Placebo KT minus Placebo
Total score of pain (S/A) 18.2 (6.9) 15.4 (5.4) 10.6 (5.47) 15.73 (5.32) −7.6* (4.14, 11.05) 0.12 0.27 (− 0.83, 0.3) 0.36 2.73 (−1.94, − 7.4) − 5.13 (− 9.17, 1.09) 0.95
Pain (VAS) 5.6 (1.4) 4.7 (1.1) 4.33 (1.39) 3.8 (1.32) −1.33* (0.83, 1.83) 0.96 −0.93 (− 0.03, 1.9) 0.22 0.93 (− 0.04, − 1.91) 0.53 (− 0.48, − 1.55) 0.39
PPI 2.2 (0.7) 2.1 (0.4) 1.33 (0.72) 1.53 (0.51) −0.87* (0.45, 1.27) 0.86 −0.53* (0.24, 0.81) 0.8 0.13 (−0.34, − 0.6) −0.2 (− 0.67, − 0.27) 0.32
Disability (ODI) 21.1 (6.1) 19.2 (6.1) 18.8 (4.7) 19.2 (6.39) −2.26* (0.76, 3.76) 0.85 0.0 (−1.1, 1.1) 0.01 1.86 (− 2.57, −6.31) −0.4 (−4.58, −3.78) 0.07
AE- 45° flexion 3.7 (2.73) 2.4 (2.33) 2.46 (2.48) 3.33 (4.04) −1.24 (− 1.0, 3.46) 0.35 0.93 (−2.67, 0.8) 0.16 1.3 (−0.6, 3.2) −0.86 (−3.37, 1.64) 0.25
AE-60° flexion 4.46 (3.31) 4.46 (3.88) 2.76 (2.7) 3.76 (2.81) −1.7 (−0.86, 4.26) 0.21 −0.7 (− 0.83, 2.23) 0.34 0.0 (−2.7, 2.7) − 1.0 (−3.06, 1.06) 0.36
AE-15° extension 3.26 (3.88) 2.56 (1.78) 3.36 (3.19) 2.66 (2.24) 0.1 (−3.01, 2.81) 0.02 0.1 (−1.46, 1.26) 0.08 0.7 (−1.56, 2.96) 0.7 (−1.32, 2.72) 0.25
CE-45° flexion −0.23 (4.7) 1.60 (2.97) −0.8 (3.46) 2.26 (4.76) 1.03 (−3.51, 1.45) 0.23 0.66 (−2.67, 1.34) 0.21 −1.83 (−4.77, 1.1) − 1.46 (− 4.58, 1.65) 0.73
CE-60° flexion −0.53 (6.55) 2.46 (5.47) 0.63 (3.88) 2.23 (4.21) 1.16 (−4.58, 2.24) 0.03 −0.23 (−1.52, 1.99) 0.07 −3.0 (−7.16, 1.16) −1.60 (− 4.63, 1.43) 0.39
CE-15° extension −2.86 (4.21) 0.83 (3.08) −1.1 (4.52) −0.06 (3.55) 1.76 (−5.25, 1.72) 0.33 −0.89 (− 0.71, 2.51) 0.45 −3.70 (6.45, − 0.94) −1.03 (− 4.07, 2.0) 0.25
  1. CLBP Chronic Low Back Pain, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval, KT Kinesio Taping group, ODI Oswestry Disability Index, VAS Visual Analog Scale, S/A Sensory and Affective, PPI Present Pain Intensity, AE Absolute Error, CE Constant Error. Values are expressed as mean (SD) for baseline and 3 days after taping and as mean (95% confidence interval) for within- and between-group differences
  2. *Significant differences (P < 0.05) within group
  3. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between group
  4. ±Cohen classified effect sizes as small (d =  0.2), medium (d =  0.5), and large (d ≥ 0.8)