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Table 2 Force-time parameters of cervical and upper thoracic spinal manipulations delivered following one another in quick succession in asymptomatic and symptomatic participants

From: Differences in force-time parameters and electromyographic characteristics of two high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations following one another in quick succession

   Peak force (N) Rate of force application (N/s) Thrust duration (ms)
  Thrust Asymptomatic Symptomatic Asymptomatic Symptomatic Asymptomatic Symptomatic
Upper cervical spine 1 273^ 136 ± 29# 1074^ 601 ± 269 180^ 93 ± 54
2 407 174 ± 34 1787 895 ± 214 160 104 ± 32
p-value       
Lower cervical spine 1 193 ± 74 174 ± 37 638 ± 98 912 ± 271 147 ± 12 103 ± 43
2 248 ± 112 229 ± 62* 895 ± 328 1502 ± 731* 147 ± 12 112 ± 34
p-value   < 0.001   < 0.001   
Thoracic spine 1 368 ± 71 490 ± 77 1732 ± 461 2749 ± 661 142 ± 19 108 ± 27
2 464 ± 109* 573 ± 90* 2724 ± 587* 3710 ± 815* 120 ± 10 111 ± 6
p-value 0.004 0.000 0.004 0.000   
  1. * difference between thrusts significant (p < 0.05)
  2. ^ data only available from a single trial of two thrusts delivered to one participant
  3. # standard deviation