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Table 4 Normalized differences in electromyographic delays associated with two cervical and upper thoracic spinal manipulations delivered following one another in quick succession in asymptomatic and symptomatic participants

From: Differences in force-time parameters and electromyographic characteristics of two high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations following one another in quick succession

   Left Right
   Glut Lats Long MidT PDelt SCM Splen UppT Glut Lats Long MidT PDelt SCM Splen UppT
Asymptomatic 1 0.0836+ ± 0.0438# 0.0768 ± 0.0402 0.0501 ± 0.0291 0.0649 ± 0.0446 0.0724 ± 0.0283 0.0518 ± 0.0337 0.0475 ± 0.0290 0.0587 ± 0.0304 0.0852 ± 0.0407 0.0798 ± 0.0481 0.0582 ± 0.0278 0.0531 ± 0.0264 0.0723 ± 0.0238 0.0503 ± 0.0275 0.0484 ± 0.0234 0.0433 ± 0.0204
2 0.0543 ± 0.0436 0.0581 ± 0.0380 0.0374 ± 0.0266 0.0281 ± 0.0163 0.0500 ± 0.0310 0.0388 ± 0.0340 0.0359 ± 0.0423 0.0392 ± 0.0183 0.0759 ± 0.0546 0.0472 ± 0.0249 0.0260 ± 0.0207 0.0438 ± 0.0319 0.0491 ± 0.0108 0.0409 ± 0.0375 0.0379 ± 0.0458 0.0287 ± 0.0173
% diff −35.06 −24.32 −25.38 −56.75 −30.92*
p = 0.004
−25.05 −24.49 −33.19 −10.82 −40.81 −55.30*
p < 0.001
−17.53 −32.09 −18.82 −21.61 − 33.70
Symptomatic 1 0.0445 ± 0.0288 0.0496 ± 0.0472 0.0239 ± 0.0173 0.0438 ± 0.0532 0.0372 ± 0.0271 0.0175 ± 0.0162 0.0272 ± 0.0221 0.0536 ± 0.0590 0.0577 ± 0.0355 0.0521 ± 0.0551 0.0228 ± 0.0185 0.0371 ± 0.0372 0.0386 ± 0.0261 0.0180 ± 0.0182 0.0283 ± 0.0281 0.0286 ± 0.0213
2 0.0593 ± 0.0516 0.0338 ± 0.0258 0.0198 ± 0.0257 0.0363 ± 0.0413 0.0336 ± 0.0289 0.0210 ± 0.0270 0.0222 ± 0.0236 0.0311 ± 0.0304 0.0413 ± 0.0261 0.0448 ± 0.0514 0.0162 ± 0.0158 0.0317 ± 0.0408 0.0510 ± 0.0610 0.0223 ± 0.0289 0.0303 ± 0.0298 0.0339 ± 0.0522
% diff 33.15 −31.69 −17.08 −17.20 −9.74 20.51 −18.33 −41.91 −28.32 −14.06 −28.77 −14.54 32.04 23.71 6.97 18.69
  1. Glut gluteus maximus, Lats latissimus dorsi, Long longissimus thoracis, MidT middle trapezius, PDelt posterior deltoid, SCM sternocleidomastoid, Splen splenius cervicis, UppT upper trapezius
  2. + raw value in ms
  3. # standard deviation
  4. diff: normalized difference between thrust 1 and 2
  5. * difference between thrusts significant  (p < 0.05)