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Table 2 Significance of differences (P) in change scores and SMT-related effect size (d) in inflammatory mediator production between the baseline and 2 weeks later, during which patients with LBP received six SMT treatments

From: Effects of spinal manipulative therapy on inflammatory mediators in patients with non-specific low back pain: a non-randomized controlled clinical trial

Mediatora Within group percent change from baseline (%Δ)
Between group Cohen’s effect size (d)
Significance of differences (P) in change scores
Acute LBP Chronic LBP Chronic LBP
vs.
Acute LBP
TNFα %Δ = −17 %Δ = − 22  
d = 0.66 d = 0.69 d = 0.19
P = 0.03 P = 0.02 P = 0.53
IL-1 %Δ = −10 %Δ = − 9  
d = 0.38 d = 0.74 d = 0.31
P = 0.18 P = 0.15 P = 0.40
IL-6 %Δ = − 8 %Δ = − 33  
d = 0.5 d = 1.45 d = 0.64
P = 0.06 P = 0.001 P = 0.03
IL-2 %Δ = + 31 %Δ = − 10  
d = 0.87 d = 0.29 d = 0.62
P = 0.02 P = 0.23 P = 0.09
IFNɣ %Δ = − 2 %Δ = − 10  
d = 0.17 d = 0.66 d = 0.62
P = 0.64 P = 0.02 P = 0.18
IL-1RA %Δ = − 1 %Δ = − 12  
d = 0.28 d = 0.3 d = 0.19
P = 0.79 P = 0.17 P = 0.33
sTNFR2 %Δ = -3 %Δ = −11  
d = 0.18 d = 0.67 d = 0.19
P = 0.37 P = 0.01 P = 0.09
IL-10 %Δ = −12 %Δ = − 11  
d = 0.15 d = 0.36 d = 0.48
P = 0.39 P = 0.2 P = 0.053
  1. aMediators for which statistical significance and above moderate effect size were found are shown in bold. Direction of changes is indicated by “- “or “+” signs