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Table 2 Results on the four primary outcomes

From: Effectiveness of chiropractic manipulation versus sham manipulation for recurrent headaches in children aged 7–14 years - a randomised clinical trial

  Control Intervention     
Outcome N Mean N Mean Difference in mean (95% CI) p-value p-value** Cohen’s d***
Number of days per week* 97 − 0.41 96 − 0.81 −0.40 (− 0.77; − 0.05) 0.027 0.019 0.32
Intensity (NRS)* 93 −0.53 90 −0.52 0.01 (−0.43; 0.46) 0.958 0.930 0.01
GPE 98 3.24 96 2.63 −0.61 (−0.88; − 0.36) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.67
Medicine*# 97 −0.03 96 −0.10 −0.07 (− 0.16; 0.03) 0.165 0.279 0.20
  1. N number of children, CI confidence interval, NRS numerical rating scale, GPE global perceived effect (1 = almost gone to 7 = worse than ever)
  2. *change scores from baseline to follow up; **adjusted p-value; ***standardized mean difference between groups; # proportion of weeks with medication use