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Table 1 A 2 × 2 contingency table outlining how adherence to guidelines was calculated. Adherence (no x-ray) was calculated as the percentage of cases where radiography was not recommended by survey participants among all cases where radiographs were not indicated according to guidelines (d/(c + d)) × 100%. Similarly, adherence (x-ray) was calculated as the percentage of cases where radiography was recommended by survey participants among all cases where radiographs were indicated according to guidelines (a/(a + b)) × 100%

From: Knowledge of and adherence to radiographic guidelines for low back pain: a survey of chiropractors in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

  Survey Recommendation  
Yes No Total
Radiographs indicated according to guidelines Yes a b a + b
No c d c + d
Total   a + c b + d