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Table 3 A summary of responses (proportion (95% confidence interval)) for each of the five clinical vignettes from the current study (top) compared with the corresponding results from the Walker et al. (2011) [18] study (proportion differences (95% confidence interval)) (bottom)

From: Knowledge of and adherence to radiographic guidelines for low back pain: a survey of chiropractors in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Recommendation Vignette 1
Acute LBP without radiculopathy
Non-traumatic
Vignette 2
Chronic LBP without radiculopathy
Vignette 3
Subacute LBP without radiculopathy
Vignette 4
Acute LBP without radiculopathy
Non-traumatic
Vignette 5
Acute LBP
Traumatic
Lumbosacral X-ray 2% (0–1%)f 12% (3–20%) 46% (33–60%) 23% (12–35%) 71% (59–83%)
Full Spine X-ray 0% 2% (0–10%)f 0% 2% (0–10%)f 6% (1–16%)f
None 88% (80–97%) 75% (63–87%) 38% (25–52%) 62% (48–75%) 8% (0–15%)
Difference from Walker et al. (2011) [18], compared by the N-1 Chi-Squared test
Lumbosacral X-ray ↓ 38% (28–44%)a ↓ 40% (27–49%)a 1% (−13–15%) ↓ 17% (3–28%)b ↑ 4% (−10–16%)
Full Spine X-ray ↓ 24% (16–29%)a ↓ 30% (20–36%)a ↓ 14% (6–19%) ↓ 23% (13–29%)c ↓ 22% (11–29%)d
None ↑ 54% (41–62%)a ↑ 61% (47–71%)a ↑ 18% (5–32%)e ↑ 34% (19–47%)a 5% (− 0.5–16%)
  1. Significance at p< 0.05. a p < 0.0001, bp = 0.0203, cp = 0.0002, dp = 0.0007, ep = 0.0041
  2. fExact binomial confidence interval calculated
  3. Arrows indicate direction of proportion (↓ lower, ↑ higher) compared to Walker et al. (2011) [18]. The only clinical vignette where recommending a lumbar spine x-ray would adhere to the current guidelines was #5