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Table 3 Adjusted differences in pressure pain threshold (PPT) readings in kPa at remote testing site at four different times after the interventions

From: What is the effect of spinal manipulation on the pressure pain threshold in young, asymptomatic subjects? A randomized placebo-controlled trial, with a cross-over design

Time measurementsSPINAL MANIPULATIONSHAM procedureDifferences between groups (95% CI)P value
Means (SD)Min-Max values95% CIMeans (SD)Min-Max values95% CI
Baseline511 (166)221–894462–568479 (154)187–831432–52532(− 33;97)0.34
PPT 1564 (192)248–1027517–623536 (172)203–916485–58827(− 12;66)0.47
PPT 2576 (199)205–1128529–635523 (176)190–950471–57653(− 10;96)0.18
PPT 3579 (204)190–1097533–639533 (177)170–910486–58138(−48;124)0.23
PPT 4573 (203)207–1195527–633524 (160)197–817480–57049(− 53;151)0.19
  1. SD standard deviation, SE standard error, PPT pressure pain threshold, PPT 1 follow-up time 1 immediately after intervention, PPT2 follow-up time 2 at T + 12 min after intervention, PPT 3 follow-up time 3 at T + 24 min after intervention, PPT 4 follow-up time 4 at T + 36 min after intervention