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Table 1 Classification of adverse events [14, 29]

From: The safety of spinal manipulative therapy in children under 10 years: a rapid review

MildAsymptomatic or mild symptoms, requiring self-care only to alleviate symptoms (e.g. ice/heat, over-the-counter analgesic).
ModerateLimiting age-appropriate activities of daily living (e.g. work, school) OR sought care from a medical doctor.
SevereMedically significant but not immediately life-threatening; temporarily limits self-care (e.g. bathing, dressing, eating); OR urgent or emergency room assessment sought.
SeriousResults in death OR a life-threatening adverse event OR an adverse event resulting in inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization for more than 24 h; a persistent or significant incapacity or substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions.
Indirect harmsThe use of intervention may cause a delay in diagnosis or treatment and the delay itself carries the potential harm.