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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Comparison of walking variations during treadmill walking test between neurogenic and vascular claudication: a crossover study

   Lumbar spinal stenosis Peripheral arterial disease Non-specific low back pain
Inclusion criteria - Central canal stenosis
- Pain in at least one leg
- Neurological signs in the lower limbs (numbness or tingling)
- Perceived weaknesses in the lower limb
- Pain relieved by sitting or bending the trunk
- > 50 years old
- Confirmed imaging of LSS
- Claudication while walking
- Ankle-brachial index < 0.9
- Pain relieved by rest
- > 50 years old
- Referred pain in the lower limb(s)
- Pain relieved by sitting
- > 40 years old
Exclusion criteria - Foraminal stenosis - Type 1 diabetes
- Spinal stenosis with predominant back pain - Knee or hip osteoarthritis
- Symptomatic disc herniation with nerve root irritation - Hip or knee arthroplasty
- Previous lumbar surgery - Inability to provide free and informed consent
- Previous vascular surgery