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Table 1 Patient characteristics at baseline

From: Effects of weekly pain monitoring on back pain outcomes: a non-randomised controlled study

Patient characteristics at baseline SMS group
(N = 1,623)
Control group
(N = 1,225)
Age; mean (SD, range) 44.5 (13.6; 18–80) 44.7 (13.8; 18–87)
Sex, female; n (%) 655 (40.4%) 512 (41.8%)
BMI; mean (SD) 26.7 (4.9) 27.0 (5.1)
Employment, yes; n (%) 1302 (82.4%) 985 (81.8%)
Longest education
Higher or further education; n (%) 615 (53.5%) 425 (48.8%)
Vocational education; n (%) 318 (27.7%) 276 (31.7%)
No qualifying education; n (%) 174 (15.1%) 139 (16.0%)
Other education; n (%) 43 (3.7%) 31 (3.6%)
Workload
Very strenuous; n (%) 19 (2.1%) 18 (2.6%)
Strenuous; n (%) 108 (11.9%) 84 (12.1%)
Somewhat strenuous; n (%) 216 (23.8%) 186 (26.9%)
Light; n (%) 281 (30.9%) 225 (32.5%)
Very light; n (%) 285 (31.4%) 179 (25.9%)
Previous episodes with low back pain, yes; n (%) 934 (82.4%) 718 (84.4%)
Previous treatment for low back pain, yes; n (%) 763 (65.7%) 594 (67.4%)
Back pain intensity, NRS (0–10); mean (SD) 6.7 (2.1) 6.7 (2.1)
Episode duration
1–7 days; n (%) 793 (49.4%) 535 (43.8%)
1–4 weeks; n (%) 359 (22.3%) 315 (25.8%)
1–3 months; n (%) 169 (10.5%) 163 (13.4%)
 > 3 months; n (%) 286 (17.8%) 208 (17.0%)
Prognostic index, STarTa
Low; n (%) 657 (42.3%) 513 (43.4%)
Medium; n (%) 558 (35.9%) 409 (34.6%)
High; n (%) 340 (21.9%) 260 (22.0%)
Activity limitation, RMDQ (0–100); mean (SD)b 55.6 (23.8) 54.1 (24.0)
Ability to control pain, NRS (0–10); mean (SD) 5.5 (2.4) 5.5 (2.3)
Recovery expectations, NRS (0–10); mean (SD) 7.4 (3.0) 7.5 (2.9)
  1. NRS, Numeric Rating Scale; RMDQ, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; STarT,The Keele STarT Back Screening Tool; SD, Standard deviation
  2. aMissings imputed if at least 7 out of 9 STarT items were answered.
  3. bMissings imputed for partly completed RMDQ