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Table 4 The difference in changes in bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) between the manual therapy and the control group between baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 96 months

From: Naprapathy versus orthopaedic standard care for common musculoskeletal disorders: an 8-year follow-up of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in Sweden

  Baseline 3 Months 6 Months 12 Months 96 months (8 years)
Baseline value Change Difference in change Change Difference in change Change Difference in Change Change Difference in change
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
BP    P = 0.043   P = 0.015   P = 0.003   P < 0.001
Manual therapy group 37.3 (31.7–4.7) 19.2 (1.2–26.4) 10.2 (0.9–19.4) 24.9 (17.4–32.3) 14.0 (4.0–23.9) 28.2 (20.8–35.7) 17.6 (7.3–27.9) 39.9 (30.9–48.8) 21.7 (9.1–34.3)
Control group 43.8 (35.6–52.0) 9.0 (3.0–15.1)   10.9 (4.1–17.7)   10.6 (3.3–18.0)   18.2 (9.0–27.4)  
PF    P = 0.003   P = 0.005   P = 0.002   P < 0.001
Manual therapy group 70.4 (64.5–76.3) 12.8 (6.8–18.8) 9.0 (1.6–16.3) 14.4 (8.5–20.4) 11.5 (3.5–19.6) 13.1 (5.9–20.2) 10.2 (1.9–18.4) 21.1 (6.9–34.4) 17.6 (6.7–28.4)
Control group 73.3 (65.9–80.8) 3.8 (− 0.5–8.1)   2.9 (− 2.7–8.4)   2.9 (− 1.5–7.3)   3.5 (− 5.2–12.2)  
  1. P-values correspond to the difference in changes between the groups
  2. Higher scores for BP indicates improvement in pain, higher scores for PF indicates improved physical function. The maximum (most preferrable) score for BP and PF is 100