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Table 1 Examples of environments in which the primary spine practitioner model is in place. This is not necessarily a complete list

From: The primary spine practitioner as a new role in healthcare systems in North America

Location Program Year Started Environment Direct access or referral?
Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA [21] Spine Care & Neurosurgery Center 2009 Hospital-based Both
New York State [23] Excellus Spine Health Program 2014 Payer system community Both
Botswana, India, Ghana, Dominican Republic [52] World Spine Care 2008 Free standing clinics Direct access
Eastern Massachusetts, USA Atrius Health Integrated Spine Program 2015 Multi-specialty healthcare system Both
Hanover, New Hampshire, USA [49, 50] Primary Spine Care 2017 Primary care clinic Both
Ontario, Canada [22] Rapid Access Clinics 2012 Community Referral
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Program for Spine Health 2018 Community Referral
Chicago, USA Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush 2018 Hospital-based Both
Fargo, ND USA Sanford Health Spine Center 2018 Community Both