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Table 2 Association between participant characteristics and (1) beliefs regarding the importance of imaging for low back pain; and (2) desire for an imaging referral in the ChiCo cohort

From: Patients with low back pain presenting for chiropractic care who want diagnostic imaging are more likely to receive referral for imaging: a cross-sectional study

  Univariable analysis Odds ratio (95%CI) Multivariable analysis Odds ratio (95%CI)
Model 1: X-rays or scans are necessary to get the best medical care for low back paina
Sex (female) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
Age 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Low back pain intensity 1.0 (1.0, 1.1) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Low back pain duration 1.7 (1.5, 2.0) 2.0 (1.7, 2.5)
Back beliefs score 0.9 (0.9, 0.9) 0.9 (0.9, 0.9)
Previous imaging 3.4 (2.9, 4.0) 3.2 (2.7, 3.8)
Low back pain disability 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Previous episode of low back pain 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
Highest completed education (University) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)
Model 2: Everyone with low back pain should have spine imaging (e.g. X-ray, CT, or MRI)a
Sex (female) 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)
Age 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Low back pain intensity 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)
Low back pain duration 1.8 (1.5, 2.2) 2.2 (1.8, 2.7)
Back beliefs score 0.9 (0.9, 0.9) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Previous imaging 2.6 (2.2, 3.1) 2.4 (2.0, 2.9)
Low back pain disability 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Previous episode of low back pain 1.6 (1.3, 2.0) 1.3 (1.0, 1.6)
Highest completed education (University) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)
Model 3: Radiography or MRI will be performed (or I’ll be referred for it)a
Sex (female) 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)
Age 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Low back pain intensity 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)
Low back pain duration 1.9 (1.6, 2.3) 2.2 (1.8, 2.6)
Back beliefs score 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Previous imaging 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4)
Low back pain disability 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Previous episode of low back pain 1.0 (0.9, 1.3) 1.0 (0.7, 1.2)
Highest completed education (University) 0.7 (0.6, 0.9) 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)
  1. Baseline variables: age (continuous variable); sex (dichotomous variable, Male used as reference); LBP intensity (continuous variable, 0–10 scale); low back disability (continuous variable, 0–100 scale), duration of current episode of LBP (dichotomous variable, Less than 4 weeks used as reference); previous imaging for back pain (dichotomous variable, No imaging used as reference), back beliefs (continuous variable, 9–45 scale); education level (dichotomous variable, Below further education used as reference); previous LBP (dichotomous variable, No previous episodes used as reference)
  2. 95%CI, 95% confidence interval
  3. aDichotomous variables, higher odds associated with stronger beliefs or desire for imaging