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Table 3 Odds of receiving imaging in participants who (1) believe imaging to be important in the management of low back pain; or (2) want to receive imaging at the initial consult

From: Patients with low back pain presenting for chiropractic care who want diagnostic imaging are more likely to receive referral for imaging: a cross-sectional study

  Imaging proportion n/N% (95%CI) Univariable analysis OR (95%CI) Multivariable analysis OR (95%CI)
Model 1: Participant beliefs of the importance of imaging for low back pain
Beliefs that imaging is importanta 153/505   
  30.3% (26.5, 34.4) 1.5 (1.2, 1.9) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5)
Beliefs that imaging is not important 340/1,548   
  22.0% (20.0, 24.1)   
Sensitivity analysis: imaging belief questions summedbb   1.1 (1.1, 1.2) 1.1 (1.0, 1.1)
Model 2: Whether participants wanted to receive an imaging referral
Wanting to receive imagingc 209/550   
  38.0% (34.0, 42.1) 2.5 (2.1, 3.1) 1.6 (1.2, 2.1)
Not wanting to receive imaging 316/1,622   
  19.5% (17.6, 21.5)   
  1. Analysis adjusted for pre-selected confounder variables: age, sex, LBP intensity, LBP duration, LBP disability, previous imaging for LBP, previous episodes of LBP, suspicion of serious pathology, presence of leg pain, and practitioner imaging frequency
  2. OR, odds ratio; 95%CI, 95% confidence interval
  3. aBeliefs of the importance of imaging measured as a dichotomous variable. Beliefs that imaging is not important used as the reference group
  4. bSummed imaging beliefs measured and assessed as a continuous variable (2–10 point scale). The higher the score, the stronger the belief that imaging is important
  5. cWanting to receive imaging measured as a dichotomous variable. Not wanting to receive imaging used as the reference group