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Table 5 Differences in characteristics between chiropractors practising under a musculoskeletal spine-care paradigm versus subluxation-based paradigm (n = 2061; 95.1% of all respondents)

From: The impact and public health response of chiropractors to the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey across four continents

Characteristics Musculoskeletal spine-care n = 1388
n (%) /mean (SD)
Subluxation-based care
n = 573
n (%) /mean (SD)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Mean age (SD) years* 46.7 ± (11.8) 49.1 ± 12.1
Years of practice (years)* 18.8 ± 11.3 21.2 ± 11.6
Degree (e.g., Master’s or PhD)* 1388 (27) 573 (22)
Practice setting characteristics
Sole Proprietor* 1386 (22) 573 (33)
Working with other chiropractors/osteopaths* 1386 (58) 573 (49)
Working with general practitioners/medical specialists# 1387 (11) 573 (7)
Working with allied health practitioners* 1386 (34) 573 (18)
Working with complementary healthcare practitioners* 1387 (55) 573 (41)
Practice setting changes in response to the outbreak
Protective screen added at the reception desk* 1384 (62) 568 (51)
Social distancing with patient seating in the reception and/or treatment area* 1384 (90) 568 (87)
Changes to the spacing of patient bookings* 1384 (82) 568 (73)
Care restricted to emergency/urgent cases only* 1384 (43) 568 (31)
Patient care was stopped* 1384 (42) 568 (25)
Knowledge of health regulator advice on chiropractors use of PPE
No necessity to wear protective clothing* 1386 (35) 573 (27)
Implementation of advised PPE use for chiropractors
Implementing some/all advised PPE for chiropractors* 1363 (94) 563 (90)
Knowledge of health regulator advice on patient use of PPE
Wearing a cloth/standard surgical mask* 1386 (84) 571 (79)
No necessity to wear an N95 respirator/mask* 1387 (95) 572 (91)
No necessity to wear face and/or eye shielding* 1387 (93) 572 (86)
No necessity to use disposable gloves* (n = vs) 1387 (96) 572 (90)
Deeming that patients do not need to use any kind of PPE* 1387 (9) 572 (14)
Implementation of advised PPE use for patients
Implementing some/all advised PPE for patients* 1352 (87) 565 (77)
Approach to patient presenting with COVID-19 or flu-like symptoms
No treatment until the patient had negative COVID-19 test results, completed the 14-day quarantine if positive, or had no more flu-like symptoms* 1385 (97) 573 (89)
Use of teleconferencing/telehealth
Before COVID-19 outbreak* 1381 (5) 571 (3)
During COVID-19 outbreak* 1308 (32) 558 (14)
Public health education
Providing public health education* 1195 (87) 421 (74)
Providing such education through their practice website* 1195 (54) 421 (44)
Providing such education through social media# 1195 (45) 421 (39)
Most trusted sources for COVID-19 information
Information from authorities (e.g., national/regional government, chiropractic associations, World Health Organization, chiropractic registration/regulation boards)* 1368 (94) 556 (84)
Support for public health independent guidelines for chiropractors
In favour of independent guidelines* 1385 (46) 570 (31)
Face-to-face treatments during the peak of COVID-19 outbreak
Decreased as compared to before the outbreak* 1385 (97) 573 (86)
Change in personal income during the peak of COVID-19 outbreak
The same or increased as compared to before the outbreak* 1332 (9) 558 (17)
Seeking financial assistance during the peak of COVID-19 outbreak
Yes* 1381 (70) 568 (59)
Anticipated changes in practice after the COVID-19 pandemic
Temporary leave from work but still employed* 1385 (53) 573 (41)
Decreased work hours/income* 1385 (32) 573 (26)
No substantial changes* 1385 (10) 573 (24)
Changes in patient care after the COVID-19 pandemic
No change* 1387 (9) 573 (27)
Increased disinfecting/cleaning of practice equipment/area* 1387 (74) 573 (56)
Greater use of PPE* 1387 (42) 573 (25)
Greater use of hand sanitiser* 1387 (63) 573 (43)
More social distancing in reception and/or treatment areas* 1387 (36% 573 (25)
More rescheduling if patients have flu-like symptoms* 1387 (59) 573 (36)
More teleconferencing/telehealth patient care* 1387 (14) 573 (5)
  1. All survey items demonstrating significant between-group differences: *P < 0.01; # P < 0.05