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Table 1 Baseline means of demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic variables for nonusers and users of chiropractic

From: A longitudinal study of chiropractic use among older adults in the United States

  Entire Analytic Sample
(N = 5,510)
Nonusers
(N = 4,704)
Users
(N = 806)
p-value
Demographic Factors     
   Age 77.4 (5.76) 77.6 (5.87) 76.0 (4.87) < .0001
   Male 38.1% 37.8% 39.7% 0.319
   Race     
White 84.8% 83.1% 94.8% < .0001
African American 10.2% 11.5% 2.4% < .0001
Hispanic 3.9% 4.2% 2.7% .0413
Other 1.1% 1.2% 0.2% < .0064
   Marital Status     
Married 50.3% 48.2% 62.8% < .0001
Never Married 3.4% 3.6% 2.0% 0.0192
Separated/Divorced 5.0% 5.2% 3.7% 0.0697
Widowed 41.3% 43.0% 31.5% < .0001
Socioeconomic Factors     
   Educational Attainment     
Grade School Only 25.5% 26.6% 19.0% < .0001
Some High School 17.2% 17.5% 15.2% 0.0981
High School 30.4% 29.5% 35.6% 0.0005
Some College 26.9% 26.4% 30.2% 0.0238
   Income Distribution     
Income - First Quintile 15.6% 16.9% 8.0% < .0001
Income - Second Quintile 29.9% 30.9% 24.0% < .0001
Income - Third Quintile 13.0% 13.2% 12.4% 0.5572
Income - Fourth Quintile 18.7% 17.9% 23.3% 0.0003
Income - Fifth Quintile 22.7% 21.0% 32.2% < .0001
   One or More Health Insurance Policy 74.9% 73.5% 82.5% < .0001
   Working for Pay 8.8% 8.4% 11.3% 0.0007
   Able to Drive a Car 67.9% 64.8% 85.6% < .0001
Geographic Location Measures     
   Northeast 6.1% 6.4% 4.5% 0.0442
   New York/New Jersey 12.7% 12.7% 12.7% 0.9471
   Mid-Atlantic 9.1% 9.5% 6.6% 0.0081
   Southeast 17.2% 17.5% 15.2% 0.1035
   North-Central 20.6% 19.8% 25.2% 0.0005
   Mid-West 4.8% 4.3% 8.0% < .0001
   South-West 10.8% 11.5% 7.1% .0002
   Mountain 3.2% 3.4% 2.0% 0.0354
   West 11.4% 11.2% 12.9% 0.1539
   Pacific-Northwest 3.7% 3.4% 5.8% 0.0009
   Rural 24.8% 24.3% 27.5% 0.0493
   Distance to Chiropractic College - Far 62.6% 62.7% 62.4% 0.8651
Disease History and Comorbidity     
   No Comorbid Conditions 22.7% 22.0% 26.4% 0.0062
   One Comorbid Condition 32.5% 32.2% 34.1% 0.3026
   Two Comorbid Conditions 25.1% 25.5% 22.6% 0.0801
   Three or More Comorbid Conditions 19.7% 20.3% 16.9% 0.029
   Arthritis Ever 24.7% 24.5% 25.8% 0.4134
   Cancer Ever 12.9% 13.0% 12.4% 0.6119
   Heart Condition Ever 28.9% 29.6% 25.0% 0.0086
   Diabetes Now 12.4% 12.8% 10.3% 0.0466
   Lung Disease Ever 9.4% 9.9% 6.3% 0.0009
   Psych Problems Ever 7.0% 6.9% 7.4% 0.6301
   Hip Fracture Ever 4.8% 5.2% 2.8% 0.0031
   Hypertension Ever 45.5% 46.4% 40.6% 0.0021
Functional Status     
   Bothered by Pain Often 32.7% 32.3% 34.9% 0.1379
   Difficulty Picking Up a Dime 8.1% 8.5% 6.1% 0.0205
   Difficulty Lifting 10 Pounds 32.7% 34.4% 22.8% < .0001
   Difficulty Pushing/Pulling Large Object 33.8% 35.2% 25.5% < .0001
   Difficulty Climbing Flight of Stairs 27.9% 29.6% 18.5% < .0001
   Difficulty Walking Several Blocks 37.4% 39.2% 26.8% < .0001
   Number of ADLs with Difficulty 0.34(0.84) 0.38(0.88) 0.17(0.56) < .0001
   Number of IADLs with Difficulty 0.40(0.93) 0.45(0.97) 0.14(0.51) < .0001
   Depressive Symptoms - None 37.8% 36.4% 45.9% < .0001
   Depressive Symptoms - One to Two 35.7% 35.4% 37.1% 0.3518
   Depressive Symptoms - Three or More 26.5% 28.1% 16.9% < .0001
   TICS 7 Score - Zero to Ten 28.4% 30.2% 17.7% < .0001
   TICS 7 Score - Eleven to Thirteen 31.7% 31.3% 34.7% 0.056
   TICS 7 Score - Fourteen to Fifteen 39.9% 38.5% 47.7% < .0001
Health Lifestyles     
   Never Smoked 47.9% 47.7% 49.5% 0.3481
   Ever Drink Alcohol 46.6% 45.0% 55.7% < .0001
   Obese Weight (BMI ≥ 30) 13.6% 13.9% 12.2% 0.1922
   Over Weight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 36.5% 35.3% 43.3% < .0001
   Normal Weight 46.1% 46.6% 43.2% 0.076
   Under Weight (BMI < 18.5) 3.8% 4.2% 1.2% < .0001
Self-Rated Health     
   Excellent 10.4% 9.8% 13.5% 0.0017
   Very Good 23.3% 21.9% 31.7% < .0001
   Good 30.8% 30.9% 30.2% 0.691
   Fair 23.1% 24.0% 18.3% 0.0003
   Poor 12.3% 13.4% 6.2% < .0001
Utilization of Health Services in Prior 12 months     
   Number of Hospitalizations 22.8% 23.8% 17.1% < .0001
   Number of Physician Visits - One or Less 24.4% 24.8% 22.4% 0.1411
   Number of Physician Visits - Two to Three 27.7% 27.3% 29.6% 0.1731
   Number of Physician Visits - Four to Six 27.8% 27.6% 28.9% 0.4648
   Number of Physician Visits - Seven or More 20.1% 20.3% 19.1% 0.4471
   Supply of Physicians per 1000 - County level 2.18(1.74) 2.23(1.8) 1.91(1.36) < .0001
  1. Note: Standard deviations for continuous variables are in parentheses. The p-values for categorical variables are Chi-Square tests of association and for continuous variables they are two-tailed t-tests. Physicians are defined as MDs.